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An element of truth - videos about science, education, and anything else I find interesting.

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Do You Expand With The Universe?
Do You Expand With The Universe?
5 dager siden
As the universe expands, #expanding #space is said to "stretch" photons. But if it stretches photons, does it also stretch molecules, galaxies and you? A portion of this video was sponsored by Salesforce. Go to salesforce.com/veritasium to learn more. Special thanks to Geraint Lewis - this video was based on his paper "On the relativity of redshifts" arxiv.org/abs/1605.08634 Check out his NOburn channel: ve42.co/gfl and books: ve42.co/GFLbooks References: Expanding Space: the Root of all Evil? Matthew J. Francis, Luke A. Barnes, J. Berian James, Geraint F. Lewis arxiv.org/abs/0707.0380 Editing and VFX by Trenton Oliver Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Music from epidemicsound.com #SMB #smallbiz #startups #SalesforceEssentials
The Supernova That Measured The Universe
The Supernova That Measured The Universe
8 dager siden
In 2015 astronomers successfully predicted the appearance of a supernova within a couple weeks. How did they do it? Win your Ultimate Tech Bundle by entering Fasthosts’ Techie Test here: fasthosts.com/veritasium This video was sponsored by Fasthosts. Special thanks to Geraint Lewis for consulting on gravitational lensing. Check out his NOburn channel: ve42.co/gfl and books: ve42.co/GFLbooks The supernova image in the thumbnail is from my documentary, Uranium: Twisting The Dragon's Tail. Check it out here: genepoolproductions.com/uranium-project References: DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN: THE REAPPEARANCE OF SUPERNOVA REFSDAL P. L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1512.04654 Predicted properties of multiple images of the strongly lensed supernova SN Refsdal Masamune Oguri. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 449, Issue 1, 01 May 2015, Pages L86-L89, arxiv.org/abs/1411.6443 Multiple Images of a Highly Magnified Supernova Formed by an Early-Type Cluster Galaxy Lens Patrick L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1411.6009 "Refsdal" meets Popper: comparing predictions of the re-appearance of the multiply imaged supernova behind MACSJ1149.5+2223. T. Treu et al. arxiv.org/abs/1510.05750 Irwin I. Shapiro (1964). "Fourth Test of General Relativity". Physical Review Letters. 13 (26): 789-791. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.789 Irwin I. Shapiro; Gordon H. Pettengill; Michael E. Ash; Melvin L. Stone; et al. (1968). "Fourth Test of General Relativity: Preliminary Results". Physical Review Letters. 20 (22): 1265-1269. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1265 Research & Writing by Stephanie Hamilton, Ralph Crewe, Petr Lebedev, Derek Muller, and Jonny Hyman Animations & VFX by Jonny Hyman & Ivàn Tello Thanks to Jaime Portsmouth for his gravitational lensing simulator and help enabling it to render simulations. Supernova simulations courtesy of Adam Burrows Numerous hubble images by Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA/ESA/STScI Numerous images by ESO / NASA
Why Gravity is NOT a Force
Why Gravity is NOT a Force
20 dager siden
The General Theory of Relativity tells us gravity is not a force, gravitational fields don't exist. Objects tend to move on straight paths through curved spacetime. Thanks to Caséta by Lutron for sponsoring this video. Find out more at: www.lutron.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis for hours of consulting on this video so I could get these ideas straight in my own brain. Check out his NOburn channel: ve42.co/gfl or his books: ve42.co/GFLbooks Amazing VFX, compositing, and editing by Jonny Hyman 2D animations by Ivàn Tello Filmed by Steven Warren and Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for reviews and script consultation Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com Rocket made by Goodnight and Co. Screen images in rocket by Geoff Barrett Slow motion rocket exhaust footage from Joe Barnard at BPS.Space noburn.info/post/ILl8ozWuxnFYXIe2svjHhg.html
The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats
The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats
29 dager siden
Simples rules of geometry meant that 5-fold symmetry was impossible as were crystals without a periodic structure. This turns out to be wrong. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring a portion of this video. Click here to start using LastPass: ve42.co/LPs Huge thanks to Prof. Paul Steinhardt for the interview on this topic. Check out his book ‘The Second Kind of Impossible’ If you'd like to learn more about Penrose tilings, go check out "Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers" by Martin Gardener, which helped my research for this video. Filmed by Gene Nagata (Potato Jet on NOburn) Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman Editing, Coloring, Music & Audio mastering by Jonny Hyman Prague scenes filmed in 2012. Special thanks to Raquel Nuno for helping with the tilings! Additional Music from Epidemic Sound
How Kodak Exposed The Atomic Bomb
How Kodak Exposed The Atomic Bomb
Måned siden
Kodak detected the first atomic bomb before anyone else figured it out. Then they made a deal not to tell anyone. Thanks to HBO Max, and their new show raised by Wolves for sponsoring this video! rb.gy/alghwn Thanks to Uranium: Twisting the Dragon's Tail for the opening clip: www.pbs.org/show/uranium-twisting-dragons-tail/ References: Albuquerque Tribune Bulletin, July 16, 1945 - www.marshallfoundation.org/library/documents/albuquerque-tribune-bulletin-16-july-1945/ Webb, J. H. (1949). The fogging of photographic film by radioactive contaminants in cardboard packaging materials. Physical Review, 76(3), 375. Julian Webb at Oak Ridge - Snavely, B. B. (1989). Julian H. Webb. PhT, 42(7), 87.physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.2811100 Radium in watch dials - www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactivity-antiques A 1958 video about how Kodak film is made, noting the careful monitoring of radioactive contaminants - noburn.info/id/video/n6XNc66AdoGlmIY.html&ab_channel=OwenMorgan Radioactive fallout in 1951 - www.nytimes.com/1951/02/03/archives/increased-radiation-found-in-east-laid-to-atom-tests-held-harmless.html?searchResultPosition=20 1998 senate hearing - www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-105shrg44045/html/CHRG-105shrg44045.htm Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1999. Exposure of the American People to Iodine-131 from Nevada Nuclear-Bomb Tests: Review of the National Cancer Institute Report and Public Health Implications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi.org/10.17226/6283. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/radiation/i131-report-and-appendix Baby Teeth Survey - Reiss, L. Z. (1961). Strontium-90 absorption by deciduous teeth. Science, 134(3491), 1669-1673. Strontium 90 and Cancer rates - Gould, J. M., Sternglass, E. J., Sherman, J. D., Brown, J., McDonnell, W., & Mangano, J. J. (2000). Strontium-90 in deciduous teeth as a factor in early childhood cancer. International Journal of Health Services, 30(3), 515-539. Wine forensics - Hubert, P., Perrot, F., Gaye, J., Médina, B., & Pravikoff, M. S. (2009). Radioactivity measurements applied to the dating and authentication of old wines. Comptes Rendus Physique, 10(7), 622-629. doi:10.1016/j.crhy.2009.08.007 Strontium 90 in forensics - Maclaughlin-Black, S. M., Herd, R. J., Willson, K., Myers, M., & West, I. E. (1992). Strontium-90 as an indicator of time since death: a pilot investigation. Forensic science international, 57(1), 51-56. Research and Writing by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Jonny Hyman Filmed and edited by Derek Muller Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman Music by Jonny Hyman Additional Music from: Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Lightless dawn" Craig Conrad www.craigconard.com/royaltyfree "ASTRAL"
Is Success Luck or Hard Work?
Is Success Luck or Hard Work?
2 måneder siden
In a competitive world, tiny advantages can make all the difference. Get 10% off Snatoms with code 'giveluck' in the US: ve42.co/USA or International: snatoms.com If you would like to receive Snatoms, submit the form here: ve42.co/getluck Snatoms are also available on Amazon Prime in the US but with no discount code: ve42.co/Asnatoms Huge thanks to Gene and Sam from Potato Jet for filming with me: ve42.co/potatojet This video was inspired by and draws examples from the book "Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy" by Robert H. Frank Special thanks to Patreon supporters (and to everyone who commented on an earlier version of this video): Marc Forand, Robert Dickerson, Christian Stauffer, LoadTooSlow, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, DALE HORNE, Alfred Wallace, Kevin Beavers, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Donal Botkin Animations by Iván Tello
Is Dust Mostly Dead Skin?
Is Dust Mostly Dead Skin?
2 måneder siden
People claim that 70-80% of household dust is dead skin, but is it true? Thanks to Google for sponsoring this video! Learn more about Search here: www.google.com/search/howsearchworks/ Special thanks to J.M.E.H van Bronswijk, author of 'House Dust Biology'. We exchanged emails to make sure I got my facts straight for this video. Below is an excerpt from her email to me, responding to my claims that start with a dash: - Around half of airborne dust particles under 100um are skin scales This is true for climates, regions and seasons where people live mostly indoors. The 1 to 2 g of skin scales shed each 24 hours will end up in places where people are present (and rub their skin or have textile moving over the skin). You can also look at it from a different angle: What else has the same size and could contribute? That will usually be pollen from outdoor sources, also depending on season, region and climate, as well as the ventilation regime of the building. However, taken as the median value over a whole year, I consider your statement correct for regions with a temperate climate. - 53% of dust particles vacuumed from a mattress were found to be skin scales It depends a little on the type of mattress. For polyether mattresses the amount may even be larger. For mattresses made of natural material it could be less since the mattress-material will also give off small particles. - larger particles consist mostly of fibers, eg. cotton, paper, wool, synthetics That's true .. including bread crumbs ..... 🙂 - skin scales seem to form a larger fraction of dust where we spend more time, e.g. in or near bed. ..... and on the couch used to view television or be active in gaming. It has to do with the constant production of skin scales over the 24 hours. - skin scales form a smaller fraction of dust if there are significant other sources, e.g. carpeting, dirt from outside etc. Yes, everyting you walk on with your shoes or that recieves dirt from the outside with other means, will have a lessr percentage of human skin scales. However, do not forget the skin scales of pets that will also be an active allergen for many people, and a food source for house dust mites. Information on dust particle size ©ISO. This material is adapted from ISO 7708:1995, with permission of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on behalf of the International Organization for Standardization. All rights reserved. Research and Writing by AJ Fillo and Derek Muller Editing, Audio Mix & Master, and Computer animations by Jonny Hyman Dust and character animation by Ivan Tello Filming by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Fictionalhead noburn.info Intro Music composed by Jonny Hyman Additional Music from Epidemic Sound: Colored Spirals, Observations
Half the universe was missing... until now
Half the universe was missing... until now
2 måneder siden
Half of the ordinary baryonic matter has been tough to find but Fast Radio Bursts made it possible to detect the WHIM. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video! For 20% off go to kiwico.com/veritasium or use code VERITASIUM at checkout. Special thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis ve42.co/gfl Nature paper: A census of baryons in the Universe from localized fast radio bursts ve42.co/whim Research and Writing by Max Levy, Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, Animations, Audio Mix & Mastering by Jonny Hyman Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
The Launch of Perseverance to Mars
The Launch of Perseverance to Mars
3 måneder siden
This was a pretty extraordinary experience - thanks to NASA for inviting me! The Atlas V 541 rocket took off carrying the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity the Mars helicopter at 7:50 am July 30, 2020. They should arrive in about seven months on February 18, 2021 Thumbnail by Fictionalhead noburn.info
Turbulent Flow is MORE Awesome Than Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow is MORE Awesome Than Laminar Flow
5 måneder siden
Everyone loves laminar flow but turbulent flow is the real MVP. A portion of this video was sponsored by Cottonelle. Purchase Cottonelle Flushable Wipes and try them for yourself: bit.ly/2WJm9Hq Special thanks to: Prof. Beverley McKeon and team www.mckeon.caltech.edu Destin from Smarter Every Day noburn.info Nicole Sharp from FYFD ve42.co/fyfd Pavol Dobryakov turbulent simulations: paveldogreat.github.io/WebGL-Fluid-Simulation/ I got into turbulent flow via chaos. The transition to turbulence sometimes involves a period doubling. Turbulence itself is chaotic motion, it is unpredictable and sensitively dependent on initial conditions. What surprised me is all the ways turbulent flow is useful to us. It is diffusive, meaning it causes mixing. This is useful in jet engines or rocket nozzles (which Destin studies) and is important to achieve in microfluidic devices, which are so small that turbulent flow is actually difficult to achieve. Turbulent flow can energize a boundary layer, which is important to maintain flow attachment over a wing, maintaining lift and delaying stall. Similarly a turbulent boundary layer over a golf ball reduces pressure drag allowing golf balls to fly further. This is the reason for the dimples on golf balls. Flow transitioning to turbulence in the wake of a bluff body can create periodic vortex shedding. This beautiful phenomenon can be seen in the von Kàrmàn vortex street in clouds viewed from space. Turbulence is everywhere, in the air currents in a room, in your aorta, in the breaths you exhale, in oil pipelines and water pipes, in the flow over cars and ships and planes. Animals have evolved for it (like dead fish swimming up stream) and we have engineered our environment, our planes and golf balls for it. Laminar flow may be nice to look at (which is why we use it in decorative fountains) but turbulent flow does the real lifting. Animations by: Jonny Hyman (Sun, Jupiter, Reynolds, airfoil, Earth time-lapse) Research and writing: AJ Fillo and Derek Muller. AJ also created the wind tunnel golf ball shots Filmed by: Daniel Bydlowski and Derek Muller Additional footage: Images of Jupiter courtesy of NASA Turbulence in air currents by the Physics Girl, Dan Walsh, and Grant Sanderson noburn.info/id/video/tGvHkLaIqYeuaWE.html noburn.info/id/video/xYnShbiiZm1pm3Y.html Music: illBird "Shaffuru" noburn.info/id/video/m6bOpZlkloaFnpQ.html From EpidemicSound epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Colorful Animation 4" Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure"
Parallel Worlds Probably Exist. Here’s Why
Parallel Worlds Probably Exist. Here’s Why
7 måneder siden
The most elegant interpretation of quantum mechanics is the universe is constantly splitting A portion of this video was sponsored by Norton. Get up to 60% off the first year (annually billed) here: bit.ly/32SM0yd or use promo code VERITASIUM Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll www.preposterousuniverse.com His book, a major source for this video is 'Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and The Emergence of Spacetime' Code for solving the Schrödinger equation by Jonny Hyman available here: github.com/jonnyhyman/QuantumWaves I learned quantum mechanics the traditional 'Copenhagen Interpretation' way. We can use the Schrödinger equation to solve for and evolve wave functions. Then we invoke wave-particle duality, in essence things we detect as particles can behave as waves when they aren't interacting with anything. But when there is a measurement, the wave function collapses leaving us with a definite particle detection. If we repeat the experiment many times, we find the statistics of these results mirror the amplitude of the wave function squared. Hence the Born rule came into being, saying the wave function should be interpreted statistically, that our universe at the most fundamental scale is probabilistic rather than deterministic. This did not sit well with scientists like Einstein and Schrödinger who believed there must be more going on, perhaps 'hidden variables'. In the 1950's Hugh Everett proposed the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is so logical in hindsight but with a bias towards the classical world, experiments and measurements to guide their thinking, it's understandable why the founders of quantum theory didn't come up with it. Rather than proposing different dynamics for measurement, Everett suggests that measurement is something that happens naturally in the course of quantum particles interacting with each other. The conclusion is inescapable. There is nothing special about measurement, it is just the observer becoming entangled with a wave function in a superposition. Since one observer can experience only their own branch, it appears as if the other possibilities have disappeared but in reality there is no reason why they could not still exist and just fail to interact with the other branches. This is caused by environmental decoherence. Schrodinger's cat animation by Iván Tello Wave functions, double slit and entanglement animation by Jonny Hyman Filming of opening sequence by Casey Rentz Special thanks to Mithuna Y, Raquel Nuno and Dianna Cowern for feedback on the script Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental 1" "Serene Story 2" "Seaweed" "Colorful Animation 4"
This equation will change how you see the world (the logistic map)
This equation will change how you see the world (the logistic map)
9 måneder siden
The logistic map connects fluid convection, neuron firing, the Mandelbrot set and so much more. Fasthosts Techie Test competition is now closed! Learn more about Fasthosts here: www.fasthosts.co.uk/veritasium Code for interactives is available below... Animations, coding, interactives in this video by Jonny Hyman 🙌 Try the code yourself: github.com/jonnyhyman/Chaos References: James Gleick, Chaos Steven Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos May, R. Simple mathematical models with very complicated dynamics. Nature 261, 459-467 (1976). doi.org/10.1038/261459a0 Robert Shaw, The Dripping Faucet as a Model Chaotic System archive.org/details/ShawRobertDrippingFaucetAsAModelChaoticSystem1984_201811/mode/2up Crevier DW, Meister M. Synchronous period-doubling in flicker vision of salamander and man. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Apr;79(4):1869-78. Bing Jia, Huaguang Gu, Li Li, Xiaoyan Zhao. Dynamics of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos in the spontaneous neural firing patterns Cogn Neurodyn (2012) 6:89-106 DOI 10.1007/s11571-011-9184-7 A Garfinkel, ML Spano, WL Ditto, JN Weiss. Controlling cardiac chaos Science 28 Aug 1992: Vol. 257, Issue 5074, pp. 1230-1235 DOI: 10.1126/science.1519060 R. M. May, D. M. G. Wishart, J. Bray and R. L. Smith Chaos and the Dynamics of Biological Populations Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 413, No. 1844, Dynamical Chaos (Sep. 8, 1987), pp. 27-44 Chialvo, D., Gilmour Jr, R. & Jalife, J. Low dimensional chaos in cardiac tissue. Nature 343, 653-657 (1990). doi.org/10.1038/343653a0 Xujun Ye, Kenshi Sakai. A new modified resource budget model for nonlinear dynamics in citrus production. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 87 (2016) 51-60 Libchaber, A. & Laroche, C. & Fauve, Stephan. (1982). Period doubling cascade in mercury, a quantitative measurement. dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyslet:01982004307021100. 43. 10.1051/jphyslet:01982004307021100. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Lee Redden, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Tige Thorman, Vincent Special thanks to: Henry Reich for feedback on earlier versions of this video Raquel Nuno for enduring many earlier iterations (including parts she filmed that were replaced) Dianna Cowern for title suggestions and saying earlier versions weren't good Heather Zinn Brooks for feedback on an earlier version. Music from: epidemicsound.com "What We Discovered" "A Sound Foundation 1" "Seaweed" "Colored Spirals 4" ve42.co/Artlist "Busy World" "Children of Mystery"
Why Most Resolutions Fail & How To Succeed
Why Most Resolutions Fail & How To Succeed
10 måneder siden
Common pitfalls of New Year's resolutions and how I plan to avoid them. Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500. Thanks to Simone Giertz for sending me and Every Day Calendar! Get notified when they're available to order here: www.simonegiertz.com/every-day-calendar Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Chuck Lauer Vose, Dale Horne, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Noel Braganza, Ron Neal, Tige Thorman
How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it)
How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it)
10 måneder siden
Scientists like Prof Sinclair have evidence of speeding up, slowing, and even reversing aging. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass: ve42.co/VeLP What causes aging? According to Professor David Sinclair, it is a loss of information in our epigenome, the system of proteins like histones and chemical markers like methylation that turn on and off genes. Epigenetics allow different cell types to perform their specific functions - they are what differentiate a brain cell from a skin cell. Our DNA is constantly getting broken, by cosmic rays, UV radiation, free radicals, x-rays and regular cell division etc. When our cells repair that damage, the epigenome is not perfectly reset. And hence over time, noise accumulates in our epigenome. Our cells no longer perform their functions well. To counter this decline, we can activate the body's own defenses against aging by stressing the body. Eat less, eat less protein, engage in intense exercise, experience uncomfortable cold. When the body senses existential threats it triggers longevity genes, which attempt to maintain the body to ensure its survival until good times return. This may be the evolutionary legacy of early bacteria, which established these two modes of living (repair and protect vs grow and reproduce). Scientists are uncovering ways to mimic stresses on the body without the discomfort of fasting. Molecules like NMN also trigger sirtuins to monitor and repair the epigenome. This may slow aging. Reversing aging requires an epigenetic reset, which may be possible using Yamanaka factors. These four factors can revert an adult cell into a pluripotent stem cell. Prof. Sinclair used three of the four factors to reverse aging in the retinal cells of old mice. He found they could see again after the treatment. Special thanks to: Professor David Sinclair, check out his book "Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To" Assistant Professor David Gold Noemie Sierra (for polyp images) Genepool Productions for telomere animations from Immortal: ve42.co/immortal Epigenetics animations (DNA, histones, methylation etc) courtesy of: wehi.tv Animation: Etsuko Uno Art and Technical Direction: Drew Berry Sound Design: Francois Tetaz & Emma Bortignon Scientific Consultation: Marnie Blewitt Courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Filming, editing and animation by Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller Music from epidemicsound.com "Clearer Views" "Innovations" "A Sound Foundation" "Seaweed" Additional music by Kevin MacLeod from incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"
The Science Behind the Butterfly Effect
The Science Behind the Butterfly Effect
10 måneder siden
Chaos theory means deterministic systems can be unpredictable. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass: ve42.co/VeLP Animations by Prof. Robert Ghrist: ve42.co/Ghrist Want to know more about chaos theory and non-linear dynamical systems? Check out: ve42.co/chaos-math Butterfly footage courtesy of Phil Torres and The Jungle Diaries: ve42.co/monarch Solar system, 3-body and printout animations by Jonny Hyman Some animations made with Universe Sandbox: universesandbox.com/ Special thanks to Prof. Mason Porter at UCLA who I interviewed for this video. I have long wanted to make a video about chaos, ever since reading James Gleick's fantastic book, Chaos. I hope this video gives an idea of phase space - a picture of dynamical systems in which each point completely represents the state of the system. For a pendulum, phase space is only 2-dimensional and you can get orbits (in the case of an undamped pendulum) or an inward spiral (in the case of a pendulum with friction). For the Lorenz equations we need three dimensions to show the phase space. The attractor you find for these equations is said to be strange and chaotic because there is no loop, only infinite curves that never intersect. This explains why the motion is so unpredictable - two different initial conditions that are very close together can end up arbitrarily far apart. Music from epidemicsound.com "The Longest Rest" "A Sound Foundation" "Seaweed"
3 Perplexing Physics Problems
3 Perplexing Physics Problems
11 måneder siden
Why does shaken soda explode? Does ice melt first in fresh or salt water? Thank you Squarespace for sponsoring this video. Go to squarespace.com to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain using code: VERITASIUM This video features experiments that have been shown to me by science teachers over the years. Does ice melt fast in salt water or fresh water was an experiment introduced to me at the Utah Science Teachers' conference. The ring of metal over a chain demo came from a teachers event in Florida. The idea shaking a carbonated drink increases pressure came from an email. Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for building the pressure gauge. Links to literature are below: Victims of the pop bottle, by Ted Willhoft. New Scientist, 21 August 1986 p.28 Carbonation speculation The Physics Teacher 30, 173 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343501 Agitation solution The Physics Teacher 30, 325 (1992); doi.org/10.1119/1.2343556 Filmed by Cristian Carretero, Jordan Schnabel, Jonny Hyman, and Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Quietly Tense" "Mind Shift" "Observations"
Why Trees Are Out to Get You
Why Trees Are Out to Get You
År siden
Want to help plant 20M trees by 2020? Go to teamtrees.org #teamtrees Huge thanks to all the NOburnrs who organized this. My apologies for the repost. These videos are from 2012 so my interest in trees goes back a long ways. I think these videos discuss two of the most interesting and amazing facts about our leafy friends: they are made mostly of CO2 (which comes from us breathing out amongst other sources) and they can transport water up a tube higher than any we can currently manufacture. So trees are out to get you. But we do much worse to them so we owe it to them to plant some more. 20 mil is a good start.
Engineering with Origami
Engineering with Origami
År siden
Origami is inspiring a plethora of new engineering designs. Try yourself: ve42.co/Origami Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Robert Lang langorigami.com Prof. Larry Howell www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu/ On first glance it's surprising that origami -- a centuries old art of folding paper to achieve particular aesthetics -- is applicable to engineering. But upon closer consideration there are a lot of reasons methods developed for paper folding are also applicable to engineering: origami allows you to take a flat sheet of material and convert it to almost any shape only by folding. Plus for large flat structures, origami provides a way of shrinking dimensions while ensuring simply deployment - this is particularly useful for solar arrays in space applications. Furthermore, motions designed to take advantage of the flexibility of paper can also be used to form compliant mechanisms for engineering like the kaleidocycle. Since the principles of origami are scalable, mechanisms can also be dramatically miniaturized. Some of the work shown is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant No. EFRI-ODISSEI-1240417. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Noel Braganza, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman Edited by Jonny Hyman, Isaac Frame, and Derek Muller Music by Jonny Hyman
The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained
The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained
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Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation. Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: ve42.co/LP References: Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao The Twisting Tennis Racket Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489 Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041 Tumbling Asteroids Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021 The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112 E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna doi.org/10.1137/070704393 Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me: Astronaut Don Pettit Henry Reich of MinutePhysics Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown Vert Dider (Russian NOburn channel) Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not: In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant. However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible. Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.
Does Planet 9 Exist?
Does Planet 9 Exist?
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A planet has been predicted to orbit the sun with a period of 10,000 years, a mass 5x that of Earth on a highly elliptical and inclined orbit. What evidence supports the existence of such a strange object at the edge of our solar system? Huge thanks to: Prof. Konstantin Batygin, Caltech Prof. David Jewitt, UCLA I had heard about Planet 9 for a long time but I wondered what sort of evidence could support the bold claim: a planet at the very limits of our ability to detect one, so far out that its period is over 60 times that of Neptune. The planet 9 hypothesis helps explain clustering of orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects. It also explains how some of these objects have highly inclined orbits - up to 90 degrees relative to the plane of the solar system. Some are orbiting in reverse. Plus their orbits are removed from the orbit of Neptune, the logical option for a body that could have ejected them out so far. The fact that the perihelion is so far out suggests another source of gravity was essential for their peculiar orbits. Special Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, DALE HORNE, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman Music from epidemicsound.com "Observations - From Now On" "Magnified XY"
Flamethrower vs Aerogel
Flamethrower vs Aerogel
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We put aerogel to the test vs 'not-a-flamethrower', a huge 2000°C flame to a large fiberglass blanket infused with silica aerogel - formerly the lightest solid (that title is now held by graphene aerogel). Special thanks to: Aerogel Technologies: ve42.co/aerogeltech Aspen Aerogels: ve42.co/aspen Ben: @BenScho999999 Dr. Stephen Steiner and the Aerogel Technologies team The footage of aerogel materials in cold environments was provided courtesy of Aspen Aerogels. Their product, cryogel, was shown to be flexible in liquid nitrogen while preventing cold burns to the hand. They are the manufacturer of the blanket used in the main portion of this video. This is the finale of my three-part series on aerogel. I'll put links to the other parts below: World's Lightest Solid: noburn.info/id/video/p5mtatVlZYiee2E.html I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel: noburn.info/id/video/rZfHc5mTdq-hpmU.html Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Dale Horne, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, halyoav, James Knight, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Lyvann Ferrusca, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Noel Braganza, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman This is an educational video demonstrating scientific experiments performed by professionals. It should not be attempted by viewers. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Running Against the Clock" "Dangerous Forests"
Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!
Making Liquid Nitrogen From Scratch!
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I used a nitrogen membrane and Stirling cryocooler to liquefy nitrogen out of the air. For this video I partnered with Starbucks to celebrate their Nitro Cold Brew. Order one here: starbucks.app.link/derekmuller Making liquid nitrogen is hard - in fact up until 150 years ago scientists doubted whether it was even possible to liquefy nitrogen. In 1823, At the royal institution in London, Michael Faraday first produced liquid chlorine, kind of accidentally by putting it under high pressure. He similarly liquefied ammonia. Borrowing a mixture from Thilorier in France, a combination of dry ice, snow and ether, he reached a temperature of -110C. By 1845 he used this mixture plus a hand pump to pressurize gases to liquefy all the known gases except six, which included oxygen and nitrogen. These became known as the “permanent” gases. A French Physicist Aimé compressed oxygen and nitrogen in tanks and then lowered them into the ocean over 1.6km deep, where the pressure got up to 200 atmospheres. Still the gases didn’t liquefy. Only at the end of 1877 were the first droplets of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen produced, by Cailletet in France. He first tried oxygen by compressing it up to 300 atmospheres, cooled to -30C, but that wasn't even enough to liquefy oxygen. But when he suddenly released the pressure, the expanding gas cooled, he estimated to -200C and he saw a mist and then droplets slide down the walls of his vessel. It's amazing how far we've come in that now I can purchase a helium-based cryocooler. It compresses and expands the gas to absorb heat from the tip of the cold finger and eject it into the surroundings at ambient temperature.
First Flight on Another Planet!
First Flight on Another Planet!
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The Mars Helicopter aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars as part of the Mars 2020 mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover. How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere: Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth). Plus the aircraft has to be light: The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy! One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night: Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds. The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible. Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters: Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.
Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site
Why Apollo Astronauts Trained at a Nuclear Test Site
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Apollo astronauts trained in nuclear bomb craters at the Nevada National Security Site. But why?Thanks Audible! Start listening with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 I found this story fascinating because in a way a nuclear bomb crater is more like a meteorite impact site than an impact site itself. Consider: Barringer Crater was claimed to be a meteorite impact site but geologists dismissed it as a volcanic formation. It was only after studying nuclear bomb craters and the minerals found there that geologists concluded the energy and pressures that created Barringer Crater were too high to be from volcanic activity and therefore must have formed from a meteorite impact. Special Thanks to: Nevada National Security Site The National Atomic Testing Museum Jonny Hyman and Verse: noburn.info/id/video/nZa4hqurmWV5eIo.html Active Galactic for footage of craters in Arizona: noburn.info/id/video/35zSoNNzoKacppg.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Bryan Baker, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Daniel Milum, Donal Botkin, Eric Velazquez, Illya Nayshevsky, James Knight, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, kkm, Leah Howard, Listen Money Matters, Lyvann Ferrusca, Manuel Zürcher, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, OddJosh, Philipp Volgger, Pindex, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Sam Lutfi, Stan Presolski, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Raquel Nuno Story and Editing by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Music and Animation by Jonny Hyman Produced by Casey Rentz
How Cod Saved the Vikings
How Cod Saved the Vikings
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The Vikings suffered many hardships living in the north of Europe: long, cold winters and importantly a lack of sunlight. Luckily, they had cod. Check out Vitamania: ve42.co/cod When making a video about vitamins I thought the story would mainly be about supplement pills, whether we should or shouldn't take them and how they're made. But what I found out is vitamins have a remarkable story that affects many more aspects of our lives. For example the Vikings needed a source of vitamin D to last the dark winter months and for their children to develop strong, healthy bones, avoiding rickets. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 This video was filmed by Harry Panagiotidis Researched and written by Derek Muller and Jonny Hyman Editing, animation and music by Jonny Hyman Cod liver oil animation by Iván Tello Vitamania was written, directed and produced by Sonya Pemberton
I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!
I Waterproofed Myself With Aerogel!
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Aerogel has extraordinary properties but it can be tough to work with. This video looks at modifying aerogels to take advantage of their unique characteristics. Subscribe to Veritasium: ve42.co/sub Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Aerogel’s extraordinary properties are due in large part to its structure. Aerogel is a solid but on the nanoscale it has a mesh or sponge-like structure. The struts of this structure are nanoscale, as are the pores at around 20nm across. This makes silica aerogel incredibly light (it was once the lightest solid but has now been superseded by graphene aerogel), transparent and adsorbent. An ice-cube sized piece of aerogel has an internal surface area roughly equal to half a football field. Aerogel is used in high end museum cases to regulate humidity. Plus it helps maintain the vacuum on the Mars Insight seismometers - it adsorbs moisture and other outgassed volatiles that come from the spacecraft itself. Proposed uses include as a physical insecticide by ‘drying out insects’ reducing the need for chemical and toxic pesticides. Special thanks to all my Patreon supporters especially those who contributed feedback to an earlier draft of this video: a human, Albert Jachowicz-Brzeziński, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Brent Stewart, Chris Vargas, Chuck Lauer Vose, Clip Tree, Coale Shifflett, Colin Bellmore, DALE HORNE, Eric Velazquez, Fedor Indutny, Fran Rodriguez, James Wong, Jasper Xin, Joar Wandborg, Johnny, Jorge Angel Sandoval, June Kang, Kevin Beavers, Kishore Tipirneni, Levan Ferr, Listen Money Matters, Manuel Zürcher, Mark Bevilacqua, Mathias Göransson, Michael Bradley Wirz, Michael Krugman, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Nicholas Hastings, OddJosh, Patrick Čalija, Peter Tajti, Philipp Volgger, Roberto Rezende, Robin DeBank, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Swante Scholz, Tiago Bruno, Tige Thorman, Warrior8252 Filmed by Paul Gramaglia Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci Animations by Catherine Chooljian Music from epidemicsound.com “Tonic Zone” “Betelgeuse” “Insidious Mice” “Seaweed” “It’s not that serious” “Platin00m - Sum It” This is an educational, scientific video.
Can You Swim in Shade Balls?
Can You Swim in Shade Balls?
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I bought 10,000 shade balls and tried to swim in them. They appear to act like a non-Newtonian fluid: rigid under high shear stress, but they flow like a liquid under low shear. Get a signed shade ball by supporting Veritasium: ve42.co/patreon Receiving a shade ball: 1. Support Veritasium on any Patreon tier and enter your address ve42.co/patreon 2. In about a month I will send out signed shade balls 3. I will cover all shipping costs but if things get really crazy I will prioritize existing Patreon supporters and higher tiers My sense was that swimming in shade balls would be difficult but still doable. This was roughly true for the single layer of shade balls. The shade balls slide past each other so they act like a liquid, albeit a viscous one owing to their significant inertia. It's much more intense exercise and it's also annoying to be bombarded with shade balls on all sides of your body, particularly your head. With multi-layer shade balls (as exists on much of LA reservoir) things get significantly more difficult. The balls bunch together and when you try to move through them quickly, they become more rigid, providing significant resistance to motion. This has the benefit that you can lie on them and as long as they stay trapped under you, you can float on them. But a little bit of motion causes them to move around and you sink through quickly. Huge thanks to: Jordan Schnabel and Cristian Carretero for filming and swimming and providing lifeguard services. Raquel Nuno for filming and putting up with me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Music from epidemicsound.com "Dubstep Mammoth 2" "Finally Here (Instrumental)" "The Last Arrival" "Sundown Love (Instrumental)"
World's Lightest Solid!
World's Lightest Solid!
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Aerogels are the world's lightest (least dense) solids. They are also excellent thermal insulators and have been used in numerous Mars missions and the Stardust comet particle-return mission. The focus of this video is silica aerogels, though graphene aerogels are now technically the lightest. At one point Dr. Steven Jones literally held the Guinness World Record for making the lightest aerogel and therefore lightest solid. If you're interested in learning more about aerogels, let me know in the comments as there is a potential trilogy in the works... Huge thanks to Dr. Stephen Steiner and the crew at Aerogel Technologies. To find out more or buy your own aerogel sample, check out: www.aerogeltechnologies.com/ Thanks to Dr. Steven Jones and Dr. Mihail Petkov at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory And thanks to FLIR for loaning us the awesome high definition thermal camera. The footage is amazing! www.flir.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Filming by Raquel Nuno Animations by Maria Raykova Drawings by Mariel Solsberg Music From epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Swagger Stagger"
My Video Went Viral. Here's Why
My Video Went Viral. Here's Why
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My hypothesis is that the algorithm, rather than viewer preference, drives views on the site. As the algorithm shifts, various NOburnrs experience burnout (as what used to work no longer works) and right now click-through rate is the key metric. So clickable titles and thumbnails are the only way to get a lot of impressions and hence views - they are the only way to go viral. This leads me to wonder which audiences will become most prevalent on the site and if there will even be a place for educational content. In the long-term, hopefully NOburn is able to measure satisfaction through surveys and other metrics to ensure an optimal experience for everyone on the site. Flipchart artwork by Maria Raykova Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci
Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?
Why Are 96,000,000 Black Balls on This Reservoir?
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I took a boat through 96 million black plastic balls on the Los Angeles reservoir to find out why they're there. The first time I heard about shade balls the claim was they reduce evaporation. But it turns out this isn't the reason they were introduced. Huge thanks to LADWP for arranging this special tour for me. Next time let's put the GoPro on the submersible! The balls are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) which is less dense than water so they float on the surface of the reservoir even if they break apart. They are 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and contain about 210ml of water. So the main reason they are on the reservoir is to block sunlight from entering the water and triggering a chemical reaction that turns harmless bromide into carcinogenic bromate. This effect occurs with prolonged exposure to bromate so regulators insist that levels be kept below 10 microgram per liter on average over a 12 month period. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme and everyone who provided feedback on an early draft of this video. Thanks to: Las Virgenes Reservoir for footage of initial shade ball dump Euro-Matic for bird into jet-engine footage Researched and Produced by Casey Rentz Animations by Maria Raykova Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful Animation 4" "Seaweed" And from Kevin MacLeod "Marty Gots a Plan" This is an educational video about the science of water quality.
Magnetic Micro-Robots
Magnetic Micro-Robots
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Tiny robots activated by magnetic fields may be used in future biomedical procedures. Start listening to Audible with a 30-day trial and your first audiobook, plus two Audible Originals free when you go to audible.com/veritasium or text veritasium to 500500 Huge thanks to: Dr. Eric Diller, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto microrobotics.mie.utoronto.ca Research Referenced in this video: T. Xu, J. Zhang, M. Salehizadeh, O. Onaizah and E. Diller, Millimeter-scale flexible robots with programmable three-dimensional magnetization and motions. Science Robotics. 4, eaav4494 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav4494 H. Xie, M. Sun, X. Fan, Z. Lin, W. Chen, L. Wang, L. Dong, and Q. He, Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: Multimode transformation, locomotion, and manipulation. Science Robotics. 4, eaav8006 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006 G. Hwang, A. J. Paula, E. E. Hunter, Y. Liu, A. Babeer, B. Karabucak, K Stebe, V. Kumar, E. Steager, and H. Koo, Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication. Science Robotics. 4, eeaw2388 (2019). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scirobotics.aaw2388 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "March of the Spoons"
$250,000 for a High School Science Student
$250,000 for a High School Science Student
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The story of three impressive high school science projects. Can you guess which student won $250,000 in the #RegeneronSTS? Applications open June 1: bit.ly/2HkLXT1 This video was sponsored by Regeneron. The Science Talent Search was founded and produced by the Society for Science and the Public. Huge thanks to the students: Ronak Roy, Ana Humphrey, and Anjali Chadha. It was great getting to meet all of you and learn about your original scientific research. Special thanks to Assistant Professor Konstantin Batygin for discussing Ana's research and Planet 9 with me. More is coming on the Planet 9 front. Ronak came up with a new design for the phoropter, the device used to determine eye-glass prescriptions. It's basically been unchanged for 200 years. Using a liquid lens, he miniaturized the device and wrote an algorithm to determine your prescription. Ana used math and physics to search for hidden exoplanets. There are a number of reasons why the transit method and Kepler telescope may have missed them: they're too small, too inclined, or take too long to orbit and so were not seen. By considering which planetary systems have additional space for more planets, Ana came up with 560 locations where we may look again for planets in future. Anjali developed an internet enabled device for measuring arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The device performs several chemical reactions to release the arsenic into a measurable state. It then reacts the arsenic with a test strip to produce a color output. This color is sampled by a camera and processed to determine the concentration of arsenic in the water sample. This has significant potential applications around the world helping reduce exposure to arsenic and potentially other contaminants. Filming by Raquel Nuno
First Image of a Black Hole!
First Image of a Black Hole!
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The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black hole at the center of M87, finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory. To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out: noburn.info/id/video/4InceZeJmKiEi6A.html I will continue updating this description with more links. Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: ve42.co/EHT Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) noburn.info/id/video/0KrJpaWSlHt-iXo.html Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) noburn.info/id/video/05myfNGrmIybgIo.html Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) noburn.info/id/video/vKLWi85qgq6gfYY.html Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) noburn.info/id/video/p6HIaMqrcq1-pZw.html Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) noburn.info/id/video/vqHZoa93g656bnI.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Scale animation by Maria Raykova
How to Understand the Black Hole Image
How to Understand the Black Hole Image
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We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
How Was Video Invented?
How Was Video Invented?
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I always wanted to know why film looked better than video. Moving electronic images have as long a history but were invented for a different purpose. This video was sponsored by B&H Photo: www.bhphotovideo.com Huge thanks to: Richard Diehl, Video Labguy noburn.info www.labguysworld.com Branch Education for awesome animations ve42.co/BranchEd Minutephysics for mechanical TV animations noburn.info Mark Schubin Engineer and explainer, SMPTE Life Fellow www.smpte.org This is a video I've long wanted to make, about what makes video look like video and, up until 10 years ago or so, not as appealing as film. I grew up with the two technologies (film and video) in parallel and to me they always seemed like two ways of achieving the same ends: recording and replaying moving images. But their histories are quite distinct. Film was always a way to capture moving images for later replaying. Video started out as a way to transfer images from one place to another instantaneously. This dates back to the first fax machine, mechanical TV, live broadcast tv and ultimately videotapes. This history focuses on the early decades of video and not the more recent switches to chip cameras and solid state storage. Maybe that's a story for another day. Additional resources and references: The Dawn of Tape: Transmission Device as Preservation Medium ve42.co/dawnoftape What Sparked Video Research in 1877? The Overlooked Role of the Siemens Artificial Eye ve42.co/sparkvideo Video Preservation Website: videopreservation.conservation-us.org Image Orthicon Tube: interiorcommunicationselectrician.tpub.com/14120/141200335.htm Film vs Digital stephenfollows.com/film-vs-digital/ Eyes of a Generation: eyesofageneration.com Television in the US: www3.northern.edu/wild/th100/tv.htm www.classictvinfo.com Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Capture a Picture 1" "Colorful Animation 4"
Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?
Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?
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Research has found some human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin
Why Machines That Bend Are Better
Why Machines That Bend Are Better
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Compliant mechanisms have lots of advantages over traditional devices. SimpliSafe is awesome security. It's really effective, easy to use, and the price is great. Check out SimpliSafe here: simplisafe.com/veritasium I visited the Compliant Mechanisms Research group at Brigham Young University and spoke to Professor Larry Howell: www.compliantmechanisms.byu.edu At the above link, you can download 3D-print files to make some of the objects in the video, plus learn more about compliant mechanisms. What I learned about compliant mechanisms I summarize in the 8 P's of compliant mechanisms: 1. Part count (reduced by having flexible parts instead of springs, hinges) 2. Productions processes (many, new, different enabled by compliant designs) 3. Price (reduced by fewer parts and different production processes) 4. Precise Motion (no backlash, less wear, friction) 5. Performance (no outgassing, doesn't require lubricant) 6. Proportions (reduced through different production processes) 7. Portability (lightweight due to simpler, reduced part count designs) 8. Predictability (devices are reliable over a long period of time) Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animation by Alan Chamberlain
Can You Recover Sound From Images?
Can You Recover Sound From Images?
År siden
Is it possible to reconstruct sound from high-speed video images? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2SmRQkk Special thanks to Dr. Abe Davis for revisiting his research with me: abedavis.com This video was based on research by Dr. Abe Davis and colleagues. I found out about this work years ago and was fascinated by the way he was able to capture vibration information in image-only video. I always imagined the motions of objects would be visible as when recording a tuning fork in slow motion - so deriving sound from high speed images seemed a feasible task. But the reality is much more difficult. Sound vibrations only cause objects to wiggle by about a micrometer. This is much smaller than a pixel, so the algorithm must understand the characteristics of the image. A move in one direction should cause some pixels to lighten slightly, while others darken - and this behavior is correlated along the edges of the image. So noise can be reduced because it's random over the image and there are enough places to sample that you can get it to cancel out. Something I'm wondering now is - would it be possible to capture sound in a single image? I'm thinking it would have to be an image of a large object or space because the wavelengths of typical sounds are quite long. Maybe a high frequency sound could be imaged in a suitable medium... Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma
How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma
År siden
A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves. Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon. Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1818350116 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator. Animations by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Seaweed"
Are Negative Ions Good For You?
Are Negative Ions Good For You?
År siden
Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"
The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect
The Inverse Leidenfrost Effect
År siden
Droplets levitate on a bath of liquid nitrogen and are spontaneously self-propelled. Thanks Audible! Start a 30-day trial and your first audiobook is free. Go to audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500. Special thanks to Dr. Anaïs Gauthier Physics of Fluids: pof.tnw.utwente.nl/ Self-propulsion of inverse Leidenfrost drops on a cryogenic bath Anaïs Gauthier, Christian Diddens, Rémi Proville, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer PNAS January 22, 2019 116 (4) 1174-1179; published ahead of print January 22, 2019 www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1174 For a detailed description of the setup: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/Langmuir2016.pdf And self-propulsion is also seen: www.lps.ens.fr/~adda/papiers/InvLeidenfrost.avi Other recent (hot) Leidenfrost experiments that might be interesting: * Leidenfrost wheels: noburn.info/id/video/zaC1eNBelZGtj6A.html * Leidenfrost maze: noburn.info/id/video/3IS9aNepY32vjIo.html * Leidenfrost explosions: noburn.info/id/video/4GTWoZdymp-NsGU.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Thanks to Prof. Kevin McKeegan at UCLA for the liquid nitrogen Filming by Raquel Nuno Additional animations by Alan Chamberlain
Spinning Black Holes
Spinning Black Holes
År siden
A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span? Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham. A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole ve42.co/pasham Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA
The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
The Best Test of General Relativity (by 2 Misplaced Satellites)
År siden
A launch mishap led to the best experimental confirmation of gravitational redshift. Get a free audiobook with a 30-day trial of Audible: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Huge thanks to Dr. Pacome Delva: ve42.co/pacome Dr. Sven Herrmann: ve42.co/sven Gravitational Redshift Test Using Eccentric Galileo Satellites: ve42.co/GRtest Disclaimer: It is arguable what is THE best test of general relativity because there are different ways to test the theory. This is the best confirmation of gravitational redshift, which is one of the three original tests proposed by Einstein. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Subtle Substitutes 2" "A sound Foundation 1" "Cell Research 1" "Particle Attraction 1"
How Ultrasound Can Deactivate Parts of the Brain
How Ultrasound Can Deactivate Parts of the Brain
År siden
Scientists have combined ultrasound, viruses and synthetic drugs to control regions of the brain. Check out Skillshare: skl.sh/veritasium (first 500 get 2 months free) Special thanks to Prof. Mikhail Shapiro and Dr. Jerzy Szablowski: shapirolab.caltech.edu Human brains are complicated - the most complicated thing in the known universe, many people say. So far we understand little - just that certain regions of the brain appear to be involved in certain activities and certain disorders. In extreme cases this has led to the practice of removing sections of the brain, or using electrodes or optical fibers to control activation rates. What is unique about this approach is it offers a way to turn on and off specific brain regions without invasive surgery. It has promise because it combines existing technologies: micro-bubbles, ultrasound, synthetic viruses, and synthetic drugs to achieve this goal. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations and editing by Alan Chamberlain Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
Five Firsts for Mars InSight
Five Firsts for Mars InSight
År siden
Mars InSight will be the first to detect seismic activity on Mars’ surface, first to measure rate of heat transmitted from interior, first to dig nearly 5m down, first to measure magnetic fields on Mars’ surface, and first to use a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface of Mars (assuming it lands of course…) If you want to watch the InSight landing “live” (with 4-minute speed of light time delay), go to: ve42.co/insight Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Animations courtesy of NASA Script and Filming with Raquel Nuno Editing and graphics by Ignat Berbeci
The kg is dead, long live the kg
The kg is dead, long live the kg
År siden
The kilogram, mole, kelvin, and ampere will be redefined by physical constants. For a limited time, get 3 months of Audible for just $6.95 a month: audible.com/VERITASIUM or text VERITASIUM to 500500 Will this be the last video I make about SI units? Quite possibly. There's something about being so precise and defining the systems within which science works. When we can more accurately and routinely measure a kilogram, a mole, a kelvin and an ampere, then we can make better observations, we can better detect anomalies and improve our theories. That is why this is so important to me. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, James M Nicholson, Terrance Shepherd, Stan Presolski Special thanks to NIST: nist.gov Additional graphics by Ignat Berbeci Music from epidemicsound.com "Experimental1"
Drinking in ZERO-G! (and other challenges of a trip to Mars)
Drinking in ZERO-G! (and other challenges of a trip to Mars)
2 år siden
A trip to #Mars involves radiation, muscle and bone loss, intermediate axis theorem and liquids. Check out Mars on National Geographic, Monday Nov 12 at 9/8c #sponsored When I got offered the chance to fly in another #zeroG plane, I jumped at the chance. Do you know how hard it is when you are thrust into low-gravity, like the 37% of Earth's gravity of Mars, and you have to remember what you were going to say in a 30 second window as blood floods your head? It's pretty hard. It would be even harder to actually travel to Mars. It would take about 8 months in microgravity during which time your muscles and bones would weaken substantially, even if you exercise for hours a day like the astronauts on the space station. And your heart is a muscle too so it weakens as well. Before I contemplated these rates of muscle and bone loss, I thought the major challenge with a round trip journey to Mars would be the logistics of spacecraft and having enough fuel to get back. But with the weakening of the human body, it's an open question whether anyone would really want to come back. Filmed by Steve Boxall Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com
What Actually Causes Dandruff?
What Actually Causes Dandruff?
2 år siden
This fungus lives on your scalp and may affect the genes you express. Check out Head & Shoulders research on getting rid of dandruff: ve42.co/HS Animation by Pindex: ve42.co/pindex When I started this project, I wasn't sure what caused dandruff and I also didn't think much science would go into making a shampoo like Head & Shoulders. So what I learned really surprised me: There are hundreds of scientists working on this shampoo. They run crazy-sounding experiments like hanging hair near Tokyo highways to understand how real-world environments deposit dirt on hair. They use sophisticated scientific techniques like electron microscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance and gene sequencing to study dandruff on the molecular level. In fact they sequenced the entire genome of Malassezia globosa in 2002, one year after the human genome project. Their findings are published in international refereed journals. What they have found is that the Malassezia fungi create free fatty acids as byproducts of their digestion, which for some people create irritation and lead to hyper-proliferation of skin cells, flaking, histamines, inflammatory cytokines, and blood proteins reaching the surface of the skin. These findings indicate the unhealthiness of dandruff scalp and suggest a possible remedy - controlling the metabolism of the Malassezia fungi. This is achieved using different active ingredients in different products and different parts of the world, including zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, and piroctone olamine. With the reduction of irritants, the scalp actually expresses different genes, producing a signature more similar to a non-dandruff baseline scalp. Music from Epidemic Sound: epidemicsound.com Music also by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com
Why Boredom is Good For You
Why Boredom is Good For You
2 år siden
Boredom makes you more creative, altruistic, introspective, and helps with autobiographical planning. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2wAsdUu I feel like this video might come across as condescending but the person I'm really talking to is myself. Despite the fact that I know how useful it can be to be bored, I still find myself trying to fill every last moment with stimulus. Boredom is unpleasant - the open, unstructured thinking that can take place can also feel pointless. But now I'm made this video to remind myself how important boredom is so hopefully I'll make more time to be bored. More resources: The boredom leads people to shock themselves study: Just Think: The challenges of the disengaged mind wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf Boredom leads people to consider their future and set goals study: Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810011001978 On boredom and altruism: pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca72/0f959d3c9c31187ac30b28ecfec430bc98cc.pdf Does boredom make us more creative? www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10400419.2014.901073 Amazing filming by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "I Think I Was There" "Critical Thinking 2" "Wide Open" "Seaweed" "A Sound Foundation 1" Music also by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Fig Leaf Rag"
This Toy Can Open Any Garage
This Toy Can Open Any Garage
2 år siden
Or almost any garage - it's particularly good with fixed code gates and garages. Samy proposes other weaknesses with rolling codes. This video was sponsored by LastPass: bit.ly/2oscAe9 I don't condone malicious hacking of gates, garages or other property. The point of this video was to discuss how it could be done using fairly basic technology like this toy that was originally intended as an instant messaging device. I learned a lot in making this video about how codes are sent and received, how they are encrypted or not encrypted. I found out how hard it is to execute in practice something which in principle doesn't seem that difficult. Special thanks to Samy! His original videos on using the IM ME to open radio frequency garages and gates can be found here: noburn.info He's got a really cool channel so be sure to subscribe if you're interested in this stuff. Music from epidemicsound.com "Critical thinking 2" "I think I was there" "Magnified X 3" And music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"
How UV Causes Cancer and Aging
How UV Causes Cancer and Aging
2 år siden
UV at ground level is non-ionizing but it damages DNA and causes photoaging - how? Also, it turns out glass doesn't block all UV (specifically UVA passes through). This is something I learned filming with the UV camera inside. Special thanks to Dr. Hayley Golbach, @hayleysgold on twitter twitter.com/hayleysgold Ultraviolet light causes damage to DNA, leads to cancer and photoaging: age spots and wrinkles. I was curious about this because UV is technically non-ionizing. A photon of UV doesn't have enough energy to strip an electron off atoms or molecules. However it does have enough energy to trigger photo-chemical reactions. For example, it causes pyrimidine dimers - the unauthorized covalent bonding of adjacent thymine or cytosine bases in our DNA. If these spots are not properly repaired, they may lead to mutations and cancer. Photoaging is typically the result of degradation of collagen and elastin fibers - scaffolding that supports the skin. This leads to wrinkles and saggy-looking skin. Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski, James M Nicholson, KIMoFy Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
Is Our Food Becoming Less Nutritious?
2 år siden
The nutrient content of food is declining. Is it because of soil depletion, selective breeding, or... something else? Watch my new documentary, VITAMANIA: ve42.co/vita I came across this story as I was making the film Vitamania. When you ask sellers of vitamins why you should take vitamin supplements even if you eat a healthy diet, they will say because our food doesn't contain all the nutrients it once did. This is supposedly due to soil depletion, cold storage, food ripening off the vine, and global transport of out-of-season foods. And to an extent this is true. Foods contain the greatest amount of nutrients if they are eaten soon after they are harvested. An unexpected source of nutrient decline is the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It causes plants to grow faster and bulk up on carbs but at the expense of other nutrients, so in percentage terms the amount of nutrients are actually declining. For now this decline is modest so supplementing with vitamin pills is probably unnecessary for most people with a healthy diet but it may be a concern in future. Thanks to Kate Pappas & Chris Kamen for writing, producing and filming this video with me Edited by Lucy McCallum Sound mix by Wayne Hyett Fact Checking by Calvin Lee and Claire Smith Thanks to the Collingwood Children’s Farm and Glenn Fitzgerald from the University of Melbourne & Agriculture Victoria Further Reading: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215/?ncbi_mmode=std soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/ www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/09/13/food-nutrients-carbon-dioxide-000511 www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-24/scientists-warning-rice-may-become-less-nutritious/9792822
Can You Overdose on Vitamins?
Can You Overdose on Vitamins?
2 år siden
Vitamins are 13 molecules essential for life that our bodies can't make themselves. Watch Vitamania here: ve42.co/vita Now available worldwide, except France and Germany where it will be broadcast on ARTE soon. Subscribe on the Vitamania website for updates. Use #vitamania to join the conversation on Twitter and Facebook. Vitamania is a Genepool Productions feature documentary for SBS Australia, CuriosityStream, and ARTE France. Principal production investment from Screen Australia, in association with Film Victoria.
The World in UV
The World in UV
2 år siden
UV cameras expose a hidden world and reveal the incompleteness of our perception The Physics Girl looks at sunscreen: noburn.info/id/video/rYanXtynnKB_hJQ.html How to make sunscreen from scratch: noburn.info/id/video/0oG7cr1mdmpwg2E.html In summary, ultraviolet light interacts differently with matter for a number of reasons: 1. Some pigments selectively absorb UV so they may appear white in the visible but dark in the UV. The pigments usually dissipate the UV energy as heat, though the breaking of bonds can also occur. 2. Fluorescent molecules absorb UV light and re-radiate that energy as visible light. This makes them look dark in the UV but glowing under black light. 3. Ultraviolet light scatters more than visible light because the wavelength is shorter and Raleigh scattering is proportional to the reciprocal of wavelength to the power of four. Special thanks to HHMI BioInteractive for their awesome animations of melanocytes and how the melanin in melanosomes protect your DNA. To see the full video explaining how we get our skin color, check out: noburn.info/id/video/vHeThbCQnJGEpGk.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski References: Overview of main UV effects: Visualizing Rayleigh Scattering through UV Photography journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00260.1 Arctic animals are photographed in the UV to increase visibility and get an accurate count: Lavigne, D. (1976). Counting Harp Seals with ultra-violet photography. Polar Record, 18(114), 269-277. doi:10.1017/S0032247400000310 Absorption spectrum of melanin: www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~jgd1000/melanin.html "The spectroscopy of human melanin pigmentation," by N. Kollias. In: Melanin: Its Role in Human Photoprotection, pp. 31 - 38. Valdenmar Publishing Co. (1995). "Optical properties of human sclera, and their consequences for transscleral laser applications," by A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, and R. Nuffer, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11(4), pp. 331 - 340 (1991). "The incidence and time-course of latanoprost-induced iridial pigmentation as a function of eye color," by P. Wistrand, J. Stjernschantz, and K. Olsson, Survey of Ophthalmology 41(S2), pp. S129 - S138 (1997). Music by Epidemic Sound: www.epidemicsound.com "Spring Moods 5"
Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium
Spinning Sphere of Molten Sodium
2 år siden
An experiment on how turbulent convection in Earth's core makes a magnetic field Get a free audiobook with a free 30 day trial at www.audible.com/Veritasium or text Veritasium to 500-500 Huge thanks to Prof. Dan Lathrop and team: ve42.co/Lathrop Companion video to explain Earth's magnetic fields in more detail: noburn.info/id/video/0ourqdF7lm6Nan4.html Australians! I'm on my way. I'll be doing live shows in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne. Details and tickets here: ve42.co/tour Find out more about the film Vitamania: ve42.co/VITA Special thanks to Brady Haran and Periodic Videos for sodium vs water footage. Original clip is here: noburn.info/id/video/066ogLBefmqbmag.html Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski I learned a lot in making this video and the one on my second channel with Prof. Jon Arnou. I changed a lot of my preconceptions, specifically I thought: 1. That the Earth's magnetic field was a passive thing - it shouldn't need a continuous input of energy to maintain itself (that seemed reasonable to me because the magnetic field has been around for a long time and it seems mostly stable). But as it turns out, the Earth is a giant electromagnet, and so of course those currents dissipate their energy as they encounter resistance in the liquid metal through which they flow. So the energy to continuously create these currents comes from the kinetic energy of the liquid metal flows in the Earth's outer core. 2. If it's convection, I'm thinking hot things rising, cooler things falling. But apparently the main effect driving convection is the compositional differences at the boundary with the Earth's inner core. This is because of the differential freezing at the boundary. Things like iron freeze into the inner core, while elements like sulfur do not. Hence the pockets of lighter material which then rise outwards. 3. I didn't get why the fluid motion was necessary for the generation of the magnetic field. I mean if it's a conducting liquid, it can conduct currents whether it moves or not. But the key is that the liquid metal can 'trap' magnetic fields. I imagine this like how iron channels magnetic fields. Then once these fields are channeled, they can be pulled and stretched, making more magnetic field. 4. Fluids operate very differently in rotating frames of reference. This is something I didn't intuitively grasp. But, as fluids move from the inner core outwards, those particles are moving much more slowly in the direction of rotation than the matter that has been there for a long time, which means the convection currents get deflected and form helices. Music by Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com Brandenburg Concerto No4
My Life Story
My Life Story
2 år siden
The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through NOburn many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,-that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch
Why Einstein Thought Nuclear Weapons Impossible
Why Einstein Thought Nuclear Weapons Impossible
2 år siden
Without neutrons, harnessing nuclear energy would be impossible. Try Audible free for 30 days: audible.com/veritasium I have a new documentary coming out in a few months - sign up here to be notified and see a sneak preview: vitamaniathemovie.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow A few years ago I made a documentary about uranium, radioactivity and radiation. I always thought of the characters in our story as the scientists and maybe the uranium nucleus itself. It was only through making the documentary that I realized the real hero of the story is the neutron. Without a neutral nuclear particle, it would be virtually impossible to release the energy from the nucleus. But with it, and the idea of a chain reaction, nuclear energy went from science fiction to reality. That is something I had not grasped as clearly before and it motivated me to make this video. Filmed by Raquel Nuno.
The Threat of AI Weapons
The Threat of AI Weapons
2 år siden
Will artificial intelligence weapons cause World War III? noburn.info/id/video/152thdViYaOpm6g.html This animated clip is from my friends at ve42.co/pindex2 New series! vrv.co/paradigms I'm not sure how alarmed to be about artificial intelligence. Personally I think it's really hard to predict when we'll create a machine that essentially has consciousness. That's because we don't know what consciousness is, how it works, what's required to create it etc. So It might be technologically around the corner or a hundred years away. What I do think is more predictable is the development of autonomous weapons that use AI to be the most effective killing machines of all time. That is scary. As outline by people like Musk and Hawking, this threat is clear and present so we should address it. I would like to see us agree as a species not to develop these sorts of weapons because if any one state does develop them, they would be very hard to stop.
Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To You?!
Why Are Mosquitoes Attracted To You?!
2 år siden
Mosquitoes are attracted to me and it's likely due to my genes. This video is sponsored by 23andMe 23andme.com/veritasium Huge thanks to Prof. Immo Hansen and team: ve42.co/hansen References: Genome Wide Association Study for self-reported mosquito attractiveness: ve42.co/MossieGWAS The twin study showing correlated attractiveness is stronger for identical twins: ve42.co/MossieTwins Some things we know make mosquitoes more attracted to you: Exercising, higher metabolism, higher body temperature, more body odor, being pregnant, type O blood, infrequent bathing, lactic acid, ammonia, acetone. There are a number of folk remedies people believe protect them from mosquito bites like drinking alcohol, eating garlic, or taking vitamin B. These do not appear to provide any benefit in lab studies and in fact drinking alcohol is associated with increased mosquito activity because it causes blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate. And apparently some of your attractiveness to mosquitos is simply genetic. This may be mediated through your immune system, which is what a lot of the genes identified were associated with. Molecular models are microSnatoms: snatoms.com Filming in New Mexico by Raquel Nuno Animations by Jacqui Robertson The opinions and conclusions drawn in this video are those of Veritasium and not 23andMe.
This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
This Particle Breaks Time Symmetry
2 år siden
Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
World's First Car!
World's First Car!
2 år siden
I got to drive the world's first car (replica), patented by Benz in 1886 Check out the series on new safety features: ve42.co/MB This video is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz, who invited me to come to Stuttgart to see their latest cars, crash test facilities and experience the innovations they are working on. Physics is something that is directly applicable to car safety. Cars go fast, but they also sometimes collide with obstacles, which brings them to a sudden stop, subjecting the car and occupants to very high accelerations, which can cause injury or death. So the major idea to improve car safety is to reduce these accelerations and there are a number of ways to do this: Passive safety: Seat belts: keep passengers in the vehicle, preventing them from continuing with constant velocity, flying through the windshield and suffering a worse deceleration when they make contact with the road. Crumple zones: increase the distance over which deceleration occurs, thereby reducing peak magnitude of deceleration. Air bags: increase the distance over which the head decelerates, again reducing peak magnitude of deceleration of the head. Active Safety: Anti-lock braking system: rather than 'locking' the wheels as can happen if you slam on the brakes with a traditional braking system leading to the tires skidding across the road, ABS attempts to control the amount of braking so that the tires always roll with static friction in contact with the road. This increases the backward frictional force that can be applied to the tires, again increasing the distance over which deceleration occurs, and it gives the driver an opportunity to steer to avoid the collision (hence why it's referred to as an active safety system). Special thanks to Mercedes for having me visit facilities in Stuttgart. I had a lot of fun making these videos so please do check out the series on Mercedes Benz's channel: ve42.co/MB Filmed by Simon Schneider Edited by Hoplite Creative and Trevor Carlee
Your Body's Molecular Machines
Your Body's Molecular Machines
2 år siden
These are the molecular machines inside your body that make cell division possible. Animation by Drew Berry at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. wehi.tv Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Joshua Abenir, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Every day in an adult human roughly 50-70 billion of your cells die. They may be damaged, stressed, or just plain old - this is normal, in fact it’s called programmed cell death. To make up for that loss, right now, inside your body, billions of cells are dividing, creating new cells. And cell division, also called mitosis, requires an army of tiny molecular machines.DNA is a good place to start - the double helix molecule that we always talk about. This is a scientifically accurate depiction of DNA. If you unwind the two strands you can see that each has a sugar phosphate backbone connected to the sequence of nucleic acid base pairs, known by the letters A,T,G, and C. Now the strands run in opposite directions, which is important when you go to copy DNA. Copying DNA is one of the first steps in cell division. Here the two strands of DNA are being unwound and separated by the tiny blue molecular machine called helicase. It literally spins as fast as a jet engine! The strand of DNA on the right has its complimentary strand assembled continuously but the other strand is more complicated because it runs in the opposite direction. So it must be looped out with its compliment strand assembled in reverse, section by section. At the end of this process you have two identical DNA molecules, each one a few centimeters long but just a couple nanometers wide. To prevent the DNA from becoming a tangled mess, it is wrapped around proteins called a histones, forming a nucleosome. These nucleosomes are bundled together into a fiber known as chromatin, which is further looped and coiled to form a chromosome, one of the largest molecular structures in your body. You can actually see chromosomes under a microscope in dividing cells - only then do they take on their characteristic shape. The process of dividing the cell takes around an hour in mammals. This footage is from a time lapse. You can see how the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell. When everything is right they are pulled apart into the two new daughter cells, each one containing an identical copy of DNA. As simple as it looks, this process is incredibly complicated and requires even more fascinating molecular machines to accomplish it. Let’s look at a single chromosome. One chromosome consists of two sausage-shaped chromatids - containing the identical copies of DNA made earlier. Each chromatid is attached to microtubule fibers, which guide and help align them in the correct position. The microtubules are connected to the chromatid at the kinetochore, here colored red. The kinetochore consists of hundreds of proteins working together to achieve multiple objectives - it’s one of the most sophisticated molecular mechanisms inside your body. The kinetochore is central to the successful separation of the chromatids. It creates a dynamic connection between the chromosome and the microtubules. For a reason no one’s yet been able to figure out, the microtubules are constantly being built at one end and deconstructed at the other. While the chromosome is still getting ready, the kinetochore sends out a chemical stop signal to the rest of the cell, shown here by the red molecules, basically saying this chromosome is not yet ready to divide The kinetochore also mechanically senses tension. When the tension is just right and the position and attachment are correct all the proteins get ready, shown here by turning green. At this point the stop signal broadcasting system is not switched off. Instead it is literally carried away from the kinetochore down the microtubules by a dynein motor. This is really what it looks like. It has long ‘legs’ so it can avoid obstacles and step over the kinesins, molecular motors walking the other direction. Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays
3 år siden
The merging of two neutron stars was detected by gravitational waves and then by telescopes in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a historic detection as it demonstrates: - the first gravitational waves detected from inspiraling neutron stars - the first joint observation by gravitational wave and electromagnetic wave astronomy - identification of a gamma ray burst in conjunction with merging neutron stars - how gravitational waves and gamma rays can be used together to locate their source All evidence so far indicates that the data support General Relativity. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Graphics from: Jets and Debris from a Neutron Star Collision This animation captures phenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817. They include gravitational waves (pale arcs); a near-light-speed jet that produced gamma rays (magenta); expanding debris from a "kilonova" that produced ultraviolet (violet), optical and infrared (blue-white to red) emission; and, once the jet directed toward us expanded into our view from Earth, X-rays (blue). Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab Virgo Helps Localize Gravitational-Wave Signals Sky localizations of gravitational-wave signals detected by LIGO beginning in 2015 (GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, GW170104), and, more recently, by the LIGO-Virgo network (GW170814, GW170817). After Virgo came online in August 2017, scientists were better able to localize the gravitational-wave signals. The background is an optical image of the Milky Way. The localizations of GW150914, LVT151012, and GW170104 wrap around the celestial sphere, so the sky map is shown with a translucent dome. Credit: LIGO/Virgo/NASA/Leo Singer (Milky Way image: Axel Mellinger) Variety of Gravitational Waves and a Chirp The signal measured by LIGO and Virgo from the neutron star merger GW170817 is compared here to previously detected binary black hole mergers. All signals are shown starting at 30 Hertz, and the progression of GW170817 is shown in real time, accompanied by its conversion to audio heard at the end of the movie. GW170817 was observable for more than 30 times longer than any previous gravitational-wave signal. Credit: LIGO/University of Oregon/Ben Farr LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists and some 100 institutions from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian collaboration OzGrav. Additional partners are listed at ligo.org/partners.php The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.
Schlieren Imaging in Color!
Schlieren Imaging in Color!
3 år siden
How Schlieren imaging works in color, black and white and slow-mo. Get a free audiobook with a 30 day free trial at www.audible.com/veritasium Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Curational, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Corvi Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filming by Raquel Nuno Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit
Total Solar Eclipse (2017)
Total Solar Eclipse (2017)
3 år siden
The total solar eclipse from Madras, Oregon on August 21, 2017. As the moon passed in front of the sun turning day to night and revealing the sun's corona, apparently all I could think to say was 'Oh my goodness!' Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Ron Neal, Zach Mueller, Jeff Straathof, Curational, Tony Fadell Everyone says not to photograph your first solar eclipse and I think they might be right. I was focused on getting the exposure right for Bailey's beads and the diamond ring, plus making sure to get the corona and solar flares. This was a bit stressful but I'm delighted with the results. This video originally included more info but since I'm uploading from Madras where the internet is sluggish, I cut out three minutes so the upload would happen before I had to leave for my flight. Special thanks also to Dr. Teagan Wall for sharing this experience with me and Raquel Nuno for inspiring me to come to Oregon. Music from epidemicsound.com "Spinning Earth 2" and Kevin MacLeod incompetech.com "Big Mojo"
How We're Redefining the kg
How We're Redefining the kg
3 år siden
In 2018 the kg will be defined by Planck's constant, not a hunk of metal. Try a free book from Audible for 30 days ve42.co/audible Special thanks to the staff at NIST who made this possible: Darine Haddad, Jon Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, and Ben Stein. Additional footage and animations by Sean Kelley, Jennifer Lauren Lee, and Frank Seifert. I have been obsessed with measurement for a long time and I'm not sure quite how it happened. The world's roundest object played a role in this. I guess I'm just fascinated by how difficult it is to pin down a quantity like a kilogram. A physical object seemed like a good idea until the mass of the international prototype kilogram wasn't as constant as expected. These methods of the Kibble balance and silicon sphere have shown better precision than 20 parts per billion, making them superior to the old method. The agreement between Avogadro approaches Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Interferometer video by TSG Physics: noburn.info/id/video/0GHYZK12l5uMoII.html Music from epidemicsound.com "ExperiMental1" by Gunnar Johnsén Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Hydrodynamic Levitation!
Hydrodynamic Levitation!
3 år siden
On a stream of water you can levitate light balls of all sizes and even disks and cylinders. The mechanism is not the Bernoulli effect... Want to make this at home? noburn.info/id/video/qKTTlKx3Yn2ceIo.html My friend Blake from InnoVinci emailed me with a cool idea for a video and footage of levitating balls in water streams. Initially it was tough to explain the physics of what was going on. The standard Bernoulli effect relies on the object being completely immersed in the upward-flowing fluid. But in this case the water seems to form a single stream around the object and it's deflected away and down from the stream. By Newton's third law, the force on the water by the ball is equal and opposite to the force of the water back on the ball, pushing it up into the stream. There is a stable equilibrium position because if the ball moves into the stream, it "cuts off" the water going over the ball so it drifts out. If it drifts out too far, then lots of water passes over the ball, pushing it back into the stream. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops hollywoodspecialops.com Music from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Colored Spirals 3" "Magnified X 3" "In Orbit 2" "ExperiMental 1"
Seeing the Invisible: SLOW MOTION Schlieren Imaging
Seeing the Invisible: SLOW MOTION Schlieren Imaging
3 år siden
This is what the world would look like if you could see invisible air currents, temperature gradients, and differences in pressure or composition of the air. Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I first saw a Schlieren imaging setup around ten years ago in Melbourne. I was immediately fascinated by the way I could see the warm air coming off my hand. I hadn't expected the currents to be moving that fast or to be so visible. This was a tricky setup to get right because alignment is very important and here I'm just working with what I had lying around the house mostly (plus the mirror). For the best Schlieren photography, making sure the mirror is stable is essential. I want to improve my setup so the mirror doesn't wobble back and forth too much creating the pulsing light and dark sections of this video. The relationship between index of refraction of air and temperature, pressure, humidity and wavelength is complicated. This website will calculate it for you: emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Ciddor.asp Slow motion by Hollywood Special Ops: www.hollywoodspecialops.com Sound Effects by A Shell in the Pit: www.ashellinthepit.com Filmed by Raquel Nuno Special thanks to Blake Nichols for assistance
Sandwich Bag Fire Starter
Sandwich Bag Fire Starter
3 år siden
Grant Thompson - the King of Random - teaches me how to start a fire with a Sandwich bag. And we tried to melt glass in my backyard: goo.gl/zb0uE0 Check out his channel: ve42.co/KoR The intensity of sunlight on Earth is about 1300 Watts per square meter. When you focus the sun's rays using a magnifying glass (or in this case sphere of water) you can increase the intensity roughly ten thousand fold. This increases the temperature of wood to its autoignition point starting the reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere. By protecting the hot embers and adding more energy and fuel, you can get these hot coals to start a roaring fire. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon
NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!
NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!
3 år siden
Scientists have JUST published this new observation. On January 4th, 2017 they detected the merger of two black holes 3 billion light-years away. This marks the furthest detection they've been able to make and increases confidence that these events will be seen with increasing frequency as the LIGO interferometers become more sensitive to low amplitude gravitational waves (as sources of noise are eliminated). Special thanks to: Prof. Rana Adhikari Prof. David Reitze Resources by: Binary Neutron Star merger: Relastro @ ITP - Goethe University, Frankfurt noburn.info/id/video/1IO3iadldn9xnoY.html Numerical simulation of black hole merger: S. Ossokine/A. Buonanno/T. Dietrich (MPI for Gravitational Physics)/R. Haas (NCSA)/SXS project Artist's impression of merger and chart: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet) Simulation of black hole merger: SXS Collaboration Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Sound Recording by Raquel Nuno
World's Heaviest Weight
World's Heaviest Weight
3 år siden
How do you measure big forces accurately? By calibrating your force transducer on the world's biggest weight - 1,000,000 pounds of force. This machine ensures planes don't break apart, jets provide required thrust, and rockets make it to their destination. Thanks to the people at NIST for showing me around: Rick Seifarth and Ben Stein. Animations here are by Sean Kelley and additional footage by Jennifer Lauren Lee. Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Before visiting NIST in Washington DC I had no idea machines like this existed. Surely there's an accurate way to measure forces without creating such a huge known force?! Nope. This appears to be the best way, with a stack of 20 x 50,000 lb masses creating a maximum force of 4.45 MN or 1,000,000 pounds of force. I also wouldn't have thought about all the corrections that need applying - for example buoyancy subtracts about 125 pounds from the weight of the stack. Plus the local gravitational field strength must be taken into account. And, the gravitational field varies below grade. All of this must be taken into account in order to limit uncertainty to just five parts per million (.0005%) Music from The Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Mars 2020: The Next Mission to Mars
Mars 2020: The Next Mission to Mars
3 år siden
In 2020, NASA will send a new rover to the Martian surface with one of its objectives to search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. I made this clip as a correspondent for Bill Nye Saves the World on Netflix. Touring the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in Pasadena was an awesome experience. I didn't think we were going to get into the control room but we got lucky. Some of the greatest moments in the history of space exploration have taken place there. They have a giant vacuum chamber where they can take the rover down to the atmospheric pressure on Mars (roughly .01x Earth's atmosphere) and test all of the devices to make sure there are no electrical discharges due to the reduced pressure. I also enjoyed seeing how the rocks will be cored and stored in tubes and deposited on the Martian surface awaiting pickup by the following mission. Images courtesy of NASA. Filmed by Raquel Nuno from 3:30 onwards. Music: epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Is America Actually Metric?
Is America Actually Metric?
3 år siden
The US signed the metre convention and bases all customary units on SI standards. As an aside, the Utah constitution from 1895 required the metric system to be taught in schools. This requirement was repealed in 1987. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Huge thanks to NIST, Ben Stein and Patrick Abbott. www.nist.gov/ www.nist.gov/pml/weights-and-measures/si-units-mass Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen Back in 1875 The US signed the Metre Convention, which basically committed the country to use the metric system. In return, French scientists sent two platinum-iridium cylinders that weigh 1kg to the US in 1889 (known by their designations K4 and K20 from a set of 40 identical objects that were produced and sent around the world). So even though everything you see and buy in the US is usually reported in pounds, all weights are traceable back to the K20 kilogram (by applying a conversion factor to get to pounds). When I was in DC a few weeks ago, I visited the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and got up close with K20, which is still kept there and used to calibrate all mass standards in this country. I thought it was pretty cool. Edited by Bill Connor
Fire in ZERO-G!!
Fire in ZERO-G!!
3 år siden
In a zero-g plane I experimented with flames and slinkies with surprising results. Check out e-penser's video: ve42.co/EPzeroG Check out Physicsgirl's video: ve42.co/PGzeroG Thanks to Novespace: ve42.co/novespace Special thanks to Patreon Supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Nick Luchsinger, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen The zero-g plane allows for a lot of experiments to be conducted without the expense of getting equipment into orbit. Apparently 80% of microgravity research can be performed in a zero-gravity plane, which is much cheaper than going to space. The flame from the lighter seemed much lazier in zero-g because without weight there is no buoyant force and therefore no convection. This makes the process of combustion more challenging because it's difficult for oxygen to reach the fuel. Music from the Epidemic Sound: ve42.co/epidemic "Serene Story 2" "In Orbit 2"
The Sun Sneeze Gene
The Sun Sneeze Gene
3 år siden
I have the photic sneeze reflex so I sneeze when I look at bright light. Check out 23andMe: ve42.co/23andme *So technically the single nucleotide swap (C instead of T) is not actually in a gene per se but in an intergenic region on chromosome 2. It's also not clear exactly how this affects physiology or causes the sun sneeze but there is correlative evidence that every copy of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with a 1.3x increase in likelihood of having the photic sneeze reflex. I have wanted to make a video about sun-sneezing for a long time. It is something I've experienced my whole life. When I go from a dark room indoors into full sunlight I invariably sneeze. I thought everyone did it. So my original question was why do people sneeze when they see bright light? That led me to consider what possible evolutionary advantages there could be to sneezing in sunlight. The obvious advantage to me is that sunlight kills pathogens of which there may be many in your snot or mucus. So sneezing in sunshine is a much better idea than sneezing inside a dark, damp cave where you may be living. For more info, check out: Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Filmed by Raquel Nuno
4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!
4 Revolutionary Riddles Resolved!
3 år siden
The solution to 4 rotation-related riddles, including the mystery cylinder, bike pedal pulling puzzle, track problem, and train part going backwards. Thank you to everyone who responded, liked, shared, or made a video response. Please fill out this short survey for research: ve42.co/Rresearch Special thanks to: Mathematician George Hart: georgehart.com/ For allowing me to use excerpts from his pedal pulling puzzle solution: ve42.co/ppp Petr Lebedev for combing through thousands of comments and providing the stats I gave in this video. Video responses I used in this video (or watched): everWonder? noburn.info/id/video/m4nFY6emk6SgaH4.html A Random Nerdy Channel noburn.info/id/video/r221c52FopJ_p6Q.html The Physics DoJo noburn.info/id/video/tqLWYbB0d4StcJw.html Oblivious Jim noburn.info/id/video/l2a6i61-dYihaHI.html Armchair Explorers noburn.info/id/video/uWXcicN9hKmspKQ.html MrEngineeringGuy noburn.info/id/video/qoapaZaDqHGXkHo.html Professor Cubers noburn.info/id/video/14PHZtOjeGWinX4.html Scoop Science noburn.info/id/video/266vgJp4oaWen3o.html A few notes on the puzzle: 1. A half-full container of honey does pretty well in reproducing the behaviour of the mystery cylinder. I wonder if the motion is a little smoother or more periodic with the ping-pong balls because they move as organized objects - also the delays between motion seemed to be longer with them than without ping pong balls. 2. For the average speed track problem, every time I said velocity I meant speed. Sorry to the pedants out there who are perhaps looking for some trick answer due to displacement being zero when you run around a track. 3. Although a lot of people identified it was something about a train's wheels that move backwards, fewer identified that specifically it was the part of the flange below the rail. Some simply said the bottom half of the wheel. 4. The bicycle question is perhaps the most complex of these riddles. If you tried it with a bike you likely found that it went backwards. But what happens if you sit on the bike and only push backwards on the bottom pedal. The answer might surprise you so give it a shot!
4 Revolutionary Riddles
4 Revolutionary Riddles
3 år siden
Can you solve these four rotation-related riddles? Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon Test yourself playlist: ve42.co/testurself Huge thanks to Patreon supporters: Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen I came across these four physics puzzles over the years in discussions with Neil deGrasse Tyson (riddle 4: which part(s) of a moving train are going backwards with respect to the ground?), Simon Pampena (riddle 2: run around a track twice, the first time slowly, the second time much faster so that the average for the two laps is twice the speed of the first lap). Someone tweeted me a video of the mystery cylinder rolling down the ramp in riddle 1 (sorry I'm not sure who it was). Riddle three about a bicycle going forward or backward when it's bottom peddle is pulled back was brought to me by a number of people and I appreciate all of their help! Filmed by Raquel Nuno. Thanks to everyone at the Palais de la Decouverte! I've had this footage for five years and am only finally releasing it now. I wanted to talk about the way grass grows on a spinning turntable but I couldn't locate the footage...
The Bayesian Trap
The Bayesian Trap
3 år siden
Bayes' theorem explained with examples and implications for life. Check out Audible: ve42.co/audible Support Veritasium on Patreon: ve42.co/patreon I didn't say it explicitly in the video, but in my view the Bayesian trap is interpreting events that happen repeatedly as events that happen inevitably. They may be inevitable OR they may simply be the outcome of a series of steps, which likely depend on our behaviour. Yet our expectation of a certain outcome often leads us to behave just as we always have which only ensures that outcome. To escape the Bayesian trap, we must be willing to experiment. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Jeff Straathof, Donal Botkin, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Saeed Alghamdi Useful references: The Signal and the Noise, Nate Silver The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes’ Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy, by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne Bayes' theorem or rule (there are many different versions of the same concept) has fascinated me for a long time due to its uses both in mathematics and statistics, and to solve real world problems. Bayesian inference has been used to crack the Enigma Code and to filter spam email. Bayes has also been used to locate the wreckage from plane crashes deep beneath the sea. Music from epidemicsound.com "Flourishing Views 3"
Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?
Does Water Swirl the Other Way in the Southern Hemisphere?
3 år siden
The definitive answer about the direction water swirls in two hemispheres Sync the videos yourself: toiletswirl.com For the record Destin and I repeated the experiment 3-4 times each in each hemisphere and got the same results every time. The idea that water going down a drain or flushed down a toilet swirls in opposite directions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres has a long history. But few have ever done the experiment. Destin from Smarter Every Day and I performed identical experiments in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. What we found is the direction of water swirl in a toilet, sink, or bathtub is determined by other sources of angular momentum. However if the body of water is big enough, e.g. a kiddy pool, and left still for long enough (at least 24 hours), then the Coriolis effect is observable with water swirling counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. Veritasium on Instagram: instagram.com/veritasium Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/veritasium Twitter: twitter.com/veritasium facebook.com/veritasium Smarter Every Day Instagram: instagram.com/smartereveryday Patreon Support Link: www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Twitter: twitter.com/smartereveryday facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Gordon McGladdery did all of the sound design for the video. We used two songs from other artists (licensed of course). Derek split the first one up so it fades from video to video, and Gordon split the instruments up on the second one. There are violins on one video and percussion on the other for example. It's really neat. The neat earth animation at the beginning and the synchronizing timer was made by eisenfeuer.com/. He also made still images of the earth from the top and the bottom. Thanks to Vanessa for filming in Sydney: noburn.info MORE INFO: There was a study performed at MIT years ago (web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf/09VOR.pdf) that explained the physics involved. We repeated some of these demonstrations, but on opposite sides of the globe…and in a way that can be easily understood. This site is a great resource on the Coriolis effect and ways people have gotten it wrong: www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/Ba...
The Science of Thinking
The Science of Thinking
3 år siden
How the brain works, how we learn, and why we sometimes make stupid mistakes. Submit ideas: ve42.co/GotIdeas Apply to work with me: ve42.co/JoinUs Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman Harpist: Lara Somogyi ve42.co/Lara Animator: Jesse Agar ve42.co/ThisPlace Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music by Kevin MacLeod, incompetech.com "Sneaky Adventure" "Harlequin"
Water on the Moon?
Water on the Moon?
3 år siden
NEW CHANNEL! noburn.info For a long time we thought the Moon was completely dry, but it turns out there are actually three sources of lunar water. Thanks to Google Making and Science for supporting the new channel! noburn.info Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon References: Great history of water on the moon: arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5597.pdf Filmed by Raquel Nuno Music from epidemicsound.com "Serene Story 2"
Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter
Electromagnetic Levitation Quadcopter
3 år siden
Spinning magnets near copper sheets create levitation! Try Audible free for 30 days: bit.ly/AudibleVe Special thanks to Hyperloop One for showing me around. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Perry cl, Bryan Baker Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Filmed by Raquel Nuno, Edited by Trevor Carlee Obviously this "quadcopter" is a demonstration device, showing how moving magnets over a conducting surface can generate levitation. It has not been optimized to minimize losses or be an efficient mode of transport. I still think it's pretty cool. I'm used to seeing light things levitated by induced currents but not a 100+ lb machine. For more on Hyperloop One: hyperloop-one.com/
The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars
The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars
3 år siden
We talk about all the potentially challenging situations autonomous cars could get into but not about how human drivers are not very good. Tens of thousands die on the roads every year in collisions, most of which could be prevented by autonomous vehicles. Sponsored by BMW I wanted to make a video about autonomous cars for some time but I hadn't had the opportunity. The self-driving technology is already at a state where it can save lives if only it were more widely implemented. Links to original clips: TED-Ed noburn.info/id/video/z6ysoKiKhp6DeGE.html BBC Newsnight: noburn.info/id/video/rK3Tgbd7lnuKfZw.html Music from www.epidemicsound.com "Ambient Electronic Groove," "Pet Animals 2," "The Long Ride." Filmed by Raquel Nuno Edited by Trevor Carlee
The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
The Absurdity of Detecting Gravitational Waves
3 år siden
A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: noburn.info/id/video/vJ2wn6uYnnBvm5g.html Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore
Post-Truth: Why Facts Don't Matter Anymore
3 år siden
Why we can't seem to agree on what's true when it's easier than ever to check. Videos like this are usually on 2Veritasium: bit.ly/2Veritasium Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon This video was filmed at a meetup in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 9, 2016. Huge thanks to everyone who attended - I had a great time. Sorry to those of you I missed, especially Lund and Gothenburg. Thanks to Patreon supporters (but this is a non-paid post): Meshal Alshammari, Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Ron Neal
Indestructible Coating?!
Indestructible Coating?!
3 år siden
Used in everything from bullet-proof vests to the walls of the Pentagon, polyurea's strength comes from its long-chain molecules. Check out How Ridiculous: bit.ly/VeHowRidiculous Snatoms magnetic molecules: bit.ly/VeSnatoms Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to South Bay Line-X: southbaylinex.com/ Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Filmed by Prashanth Venkataramanujam SFX by A Shell in the Pit
What the Fahrenheit?!
What the Fahrenheit?!
3 år siden
The crazy story of the arbitrary temperature scale used in a tiny minority of countries. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Snatoms are available again! www.snatoms.com Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Celsius didn't invent Celsius: bit.ly/VeCelsius Video animated by Marcello Ascani: bit.ly/VeMarcello Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Music by Kevin MacLeod: incompetech.com "Modern Piano Zeta - Improbable" "Ice Demon" "Divertimento K131" "Sneaky Adventure" "Sheep May Safely Graze" "Professor and the Plant" References: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Script: As an Australian-Canadian the Fahrenheit temperature scale always seemsed a bit arbitrary. I mean why does water freeze at 32 degrees? And what exactly does zero represent? According to many sources the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting zero degrees equal to the temperature of an ice, salt, and water mixture and 100 degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. But that isn’t true. The real story is much more interesting, and scientific... August 14th 1701 was almost certainly the worst day in the life of fifteen year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. On that day both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. He was sent from Poland, where he lived, to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and ran away so many times his employers put out a warrant for his arrest. Traveling from city to city around Europe, he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular thermometers. In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Romer. Romer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. In other words, he found a way to accurately measure the finite speed of light. But more pertinent to this story, in 1702 Romer was housebound after breaking his leg. To pass the time he devised a new temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. This might seem odd until you consider that Romer wanted the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees (as an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60). If you take this scale, divide it in half, in half again, and in half once more, you find the freezing point of water 1/8th up the scale, and human body temperature 3/8th up the scale. So at their meeting in 1708, Fahrenheit learned of Romer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own, adjusting it slightly because he found it “inconvenient and inelegant on account of the fractional numbers”. So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. That is the original Fahrenheit scale. He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. But then, at some later time Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on his scale by four, setting freezing point to the now familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. It’s unclear exactly why he did this. He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements but I think there was a better reason. You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. His thermometers agreed with each other precisely, at a time when that was unheard of. He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol used in most other thermometers at the time. For these accomplishments, he was inducted into the British Royal Society. And we know he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hooke, in which he would have come across the idea that a one degree increase in temperature should correspond to a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. And today a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. Is this just a coincidence? We’ll probably never know for sure because as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was secretive about his methods. But I think the data strongly suggests this was the case. So what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit and Romer? By many accounts it’s the temperature of a salt, ice and water mixture. But there are different descriptions of these mixtures and none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to. More likely I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter, set that as zero and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. Now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize, oh and the United States of America.
Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?
Is This What Quantum Mechanics Looks Like?
4 år siden
Silicone oil droplets provide a physical realization of pilot wave theories. Check out Smarter Every Day: bit.ly/VeSmarter Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Huge thanks to: Dr. Stephane Perrard, Dr Matthieu Labousse, Pr Emmanuel Fort, Pr Yves Couder and their group site dualwalkers.com/ Prof. John Bush: math.mit.edu/~bush/ Dr. Daniel Harris Prof. Stephen Bartlett Looking Glass Universe: bit.ly/LGUVe Workgroup Bohemian Mechanics: www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~bohmmech/ Filmed by Raquel Nuno Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Thanks to Google Making and Science for helping me pursue my #sciencegoals. If you want to try this experiment, instructions are here: link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12650-016-0383-5 The standard theory of quantum mechanics leaves a bit to be desired. As Richard Feynman put it, "I think I can safely say that no one understands quantum mechanics." This is because observations of experiments have led us to a theory that contradicts common sense. The wave function contains all the information that is knowable about a particle, yet it can only be used to calculate probabilities of where a particle will likely turn up. It can't give us an actual account of where the particle went or where it will be at some later time. Some have suggested that this theory is incomplete. Maybe something is going on beneath the radar of standard quantum theory and somehow producing the appearance of randomness and uncertainty without actually being random or uncertain. Theories of this sort are called hidden variable theories because they propose entities that aren't observable. One such theory is pilot wave theory, first proposed by de Broglie, but later developed by Bohm. The idea here is that a particle oscillates, creating a wave. It then interacts with the wave and this complex interaction determines its motion. Experiments using silicone oil droplets on a vibrating bath provide a remarkable physical realization of pilot wave theories. They give us a physical picture of what the quantum world might look like if this is what's going on - and this theory is still deterministic. The particle is never in two places at once and there is no randomness. Edited by Robert Dahlem Sound design by A Shell in the Pit
Welding in Space
Welding in Space
4 år siden
In space, metals can weld together without heat or melting. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Written by Joh Howes and Derek Muller Yes, it's pronounced Gemini (ee not eye) because that's the way everyone pronounced this mission. Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi References: Gemini IV transcripts: www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/gemini4.htm Gemini IV recordings: archive.org/details/Gemini4 (relevant clip is 1297 at about 2:00) ESA cold welding recommendations: esmat.esa.int/Publications/Published_papers/STM-279.pdf Cold welding gold nanowire: www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n3/full/nnano.2010.4.html Music by Kevin MacLeod "Intrepid" www.incompetech.com
How the Quantum Vacuum Gave Rise to Galaxies
How the Quantum Vacuum Gave Rise to Galaxies
4 år siden
All the large-scale structure in the universe may owe its existence to nothing. Sponsored by the Dyson 360 Eye Robot #ad: bit.ly/2cGqBRV Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Thanks to Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi Let's see how clearly I can explain this. We think of empty space as, well... empty, the epitome of nothingness. But as our understanding of physics has evolved we have realized that it's not truly empty. Space is filled with fields. There is a field for every subatomic particle. One for electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and so on. In empty space these fields are basically zero, flat, nil. But it's impossible to make them perfectly zero so there are always some quantum fluctuations in the fields, even in a perfect vacuum. These are sometimes called virtual particles but they should really just be thought of as little disturbances in the field. Vacuum fluctuation play a role mediating the interactions of subatomic particles but they don't really have an impact on the large-scale structure of the universe, EXCEPT during inflation, right after the big bang when the universe increased in size 10^26 times. Due to this rapid expansion, those tiny fluctuations were blown up to the scale of the observable universe. And we know this by looking at the cosmic microwave background radiation where we can see slightly hotter and cooler parts of the early universe that correspond to density fluctuations. And it is these density fluctuations that allowed matter to clump together into large structures like the gigantic gas clouds that would go on to contain stars and planets. In case the video isn't clear, this is what I've been trying to say. Animations by Gustavo Rosa This video was sponsored in part by Dyson #ad
The Best and Worst Prediction in Science
The Best and Worst Prediction in Science
4 år siden
The best and worst predictions in science are both based on the same underlying physics Check out the Great Courses Plus: ow.ly/cePe303oKDM Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Special thanks to: Prof. Sean Carroll Prof. Brian Schmidt Prof. Stephen Bartlett Prof. Geraint Lewis More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/XDkwi Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Nathan Hansen Virtual particles are a way of talking about fields and their interactions as though particles are doing all the work. This is why there is some controversy around using the term 'virtual particles'. Some people think the term is useful, especially since in calculating with Feynman diagrams you draw all the particle interactions that are possible (and then do the calculations to get the right answer). While others feel this terminology is misleading because virtual particles don't behave like real particles and can't be observed.
Is Most Published Research Wrong?
Is Most Published Research Wrong?
4 år siden
Mounting evidence suggests a lot of published research is false. Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Patreon supporters: Bryan Baker, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi More information on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/z0wmO The Preregistration Challenge: cos.io/prereg/ Resources used in the making of this video: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 Trouble at the Lab: www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble Science isn't broken: fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/#part1 Visual effects by Gustavo Rosa
The Illusion of Truth
The Illusion of Truth
4 år siden
If you repeat something enough times, it comes to feel good and true. Support Veritasium on Patreon: bit.ly/VePatreon Science with Hot Wheels! My vids for kids: bit.ly/VeHotWheels More info on cognitive ease: bit.ly/29OMGas This episode was inspired by the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. This video was edited by Daniel Joseph Files, with music from Kevin MacLeod at incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan" "Sing Along With Jim" and "Full On". Veritasium is supported on Patreon by: Jason Buster, Saeed Alghamdi, Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Bryan Baker, & Imthetroublesolver 8)
Stringless Yo-Yo!
Stringless Yo-Yo!
4 år siden
How can you Yo-Yo without the string attached? Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe For more Ben Conde: bit.ly/VeBenConde For Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo For more on yo-yos check out: bit.ly/290wR3a How to yo-yo without a string attached... So many crazy tricks and the science that makes it possible. Edited and animated by Daniel Joseph Files
The First Celsius Thermometer
The First Celsius Thermometer
4 år siden
Celsius never devised nor used the scale that now bears his name. Veritasium is now on Patreon: patreon.com/veritasium Special thanks to Michael Stevens of Vsauce! noburn.info More info about Celsius and temperature scales: wke.lt/w/s/2I6Nu References for this video: A History of the Thermometer and its uses in Meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey by Herbert Arthur Klein Lehrbuch der Chemie by Jöns Jakob Berzelius Special Thanks to the Uppsala University Museum I filmed this in Uppsala in the summer of 2012! So I've been thinking about this idea for a very long time. I'm glad to finally have it out there in the world.
Inside the Svalbard Seed Vault
Inside the Svalbard Seed Vault
4 år siden
A rare look inside the Svalbard Global Seed Vault which is closed ~350 days a year Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe More info on the seed vault: wke.lt/w/s/EKFlK My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. Special thanks to Bente Naeverdal and the Crop Trust: www.croptrust.org
The Northernmost Town on Earth (Svalbard in 4K)
The Northernmost Town on Earth (Svalbard in 4K)
4 år siden
Longyearbyen on Svalbard is the northernmost settlement with over 1000 residents My trip to Norway was funded by Screen Australia, Film Victoria and Genepool Productions as part of a new project. More information soon. More info on Svalbard: wke.lt/w/s/yiYNC Music licensed from www.cuesongs.com "After Catalunya" Spotify page: play.spotify.com/artist/2JnQ2AxkaRjlGCNmfkHiJd iTunes: itunes.apple.com/gb/artist/emphemetry/id414183064 Captions: Come take a walk with me around Longyearbyen, the largest town on the Norwegian islands of Svalbard. Parts of it look familiar, but make no mistake, this place is different. At 78 degrees North, it lies just 800 miles or 1300 kilometres from the North Pole. And with over 2,000 permanent inhabitants it is the Northernmost real town on Earth. There are only 50km of road, including the small streets between houses, so people get around the island mainly on snowmobile. In fact there are more registered snowmobiles than residents. Anyone leaving town is required to travel with a gun and someone who knows how to use it because the islands are also home to polar bears. The average daytime high is below freezing for all but four months of the year, and from the end of October to mid-February the sun doesn’t rise at all. This is the long polar night. Living here is tough. This past December an avalanche in town destroyed 10 homes, which used to be here, killing two people. So how did this cold, remote, ice-covered archipelago come to be inhabited? The hills around town are rich in coal deposits that have been mined for over 100 years. The coal was transported to the port via a series of aerial tramways some of which remain today, though they are no longer operational. Coal is a reminder that Svalbard was not always an Arctic ice world. 360 million years ago it was actually in the tropics North of the equator. A swampy area, it was covered with the precursors to modern ferns, which were much larger than they are today, reaching 10-30 metres in height. This vegetation was then covered in mud and sand and submerged under the sea. Over time it turned into the coal deposits that in the 20th century brought miners from Norway, Russia, and the US. Most of the coal mines have now closed and the economy is gradually shifting towards tourism, education and research. Tourists take trips on snowmobiles and dog sleds. There is a university centre in Svalbard, which offers semester courses in biology, physics and geology. And up on the side of a mountain is the Svalbard Global seed vault… but that’s a story for another time. The locals tell me that interest in the region from different nations is increasing. As the globe warms and Arctic ice shrinks, trade routes are opening up across the North. And Svalbard is strategically placed between North America, Asia and Europe. One day in the future Svalbard may no longer be as cold or remote as it once was. But for now it is a reminder of how through our ingenuity people can live in the most inhospitable of places. Shot with a DJI Phantom 4 drone
Science of Laser Hair Removal in SLOW MOTION
Science of Laser Hair Removal in SLOW MOTION
4 år siden
We also made a video about laser cooling! bit.ly/PhysGirl Check out Audible: bit.ly/AudibleVe Check out Beyond Slow Motion: bit.ly/VeBeyondSlowMo More on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/ef3eV Special thanks to Laser Away in Santa Monica for helping make this happen - your staff was awesome! bit.ly/VeLaserAway Research and filming by Raquel Nuno and Aaron White.
Why Anecdotes Trump Data
Why Anecdotes Trump Data
4 år siden
A story is worth a thousand data points. My second channel: bit.ly/2veritasium More info on this topic: wke.lt/w/s/TzNC0
These Liquids Look Alive!
These Liquids Look Alive!
4 år siden
Why do droplets of food coloring attract, repel, and chase each other? Snatoms molecular models: igg.me/at/snatoms More about this topic: wke.lt/w/s/VRjRQ Original paper on droplets: stanford.edu/~manup/docs/Cira_DancingDroplets.pdf Marangoni Flow: web.mit.edu/2.21/www/Lec-notes/Surfacetension/Lecture4.pdf Surface Energy: itf.fys.kuleuven.be/~joi/papers/Wetting%20and%20spreading.pdf Filming and master pipetting by Raquel Nuno Research and writing by Aaron White
dragoneye33
dragoneye33 - Time siden
He sounds stupid now that they found water today.. Dumb fucktard
dee dee
dee dee - Time siden
celsius is trash for cheese-eating yuropoors
Ƿynnťari
Ƿynnťari - Time siden
Doesn't the flatness play any role? In a liquid, which is free to deform, every part of the surface is pushed by gravity with the same strength, so wouldn't it become perfectly flat? If yes, then by freezing it, you'd get a perfectly flat solid, with no dents to provide friction, you'd have no dents for your dents to bump into and stop the movement, so the only direction in which it would stop you is downwards. If it's wrong, why is it wrong?
rbolo29
rbolo29 - Time siden
So, Gravity is an artifact of the expansion?
deemon710
deemon710 - Time siden
No. I don't get the photon in the rocket looking different to stationary observers vs passengers.
Eldon Preston
Eldon Preston - Time siden
Anyone else think the guy in the suit stole the show? lol, what a likeable chap & he had some good info.
Jonlic
Jonlic - 2 timer siden
Tedashi is here
Bird4DB !!!!
Bird4DB !!!! - 2 timer siden
Woww👍🏼🤯👍🏼Amazing!!!
Heywood Jablowme
Heywood Jablowme - 2 timer siden
Good video. I suspected the answer had something to do with cold-blooded-ness.
Opinionist
Opinionist - 2 timer siden
I'm trying to figure out what's more dangerous: the radiation or the stench from the dead rats and other fateful creatures.
Opinionist
Opinionist - 2 timer siden
We're all gonna die and admitting it might be our salvation. Just pestering you, mate. We're all fine.
Ƿynnťari
Ƿynnťari - 2 timer siden
this didn't actually explain anything, why is the hole making a projection of the sun?
Raandom Player
Raandom Player - 2 timer siden
You'll see a crescent if the sun is eclipsed by the moon
Official Jmoney
Official Jmoney - 2 timer siden
I didnt know Ramps Existed back then 😭
Djion Archibald
Djion Archibald - 2 timer siden
3:00
Arlojmikk Minecraft
Arlojmikk Minecraft - 2 timer siden
Safety is boring
beyblade gods
beyblade gods - 2 timer siden
I forgot I had seen dis , existentialism hits again!!
rlsuth
rlsuth - 2 timer siden
100% of theoretical physicists can believe in parallel universes. That still doesn't make them correct.
Shruti Dhapare
Shruti Dhapare - 2 timer siden
So no one here is science student..? Well any 12th science student know this(in India)
Ashish Khemchandani
Ashish Khemchandani - 2 timer siden
So according to Lambda-CDM model, an object 1000 km away moves further away by about 6.8 cm every year due to the expansion of space. Can somebody check the math? If that's correct, the earth's diameter must expand by about 1 m approximately every 14 months!
Joshua Foubert
Joshua Foubert - 2 timer siden
Weird story but today I went out front my house and there was two chairs that I thought were ours and they were placed in the same spot where myself and my roommate sit when we go out front. Apparently my roommate texted me asking if I put the chairs out there but we both said it wasn’t us and they aren’t even our chairs. Scary. Makes me think we were intertwined with the other parallel universe and those are our chairs but from the other world but just different chairs with the same structure and exactly identical but different
You Learn Education
You Learn Education - 2 timer siden
This video was much needed because the common perception of Einstein’s gravity is much misleading. This video explained the true view
You Learn Education
You Learn Education - 2 timer siden
Gravity as understood by Einstein is simply moving in a straight line path through four dimensional space time. No acceleration required. Because space-time is warped, and thus time is warped with space, when moving in a straight line through its curvature while no forces act on you, a point in time in the future is correlated with a lower position in space, so your next moment in time is downward.
Bernie A. Hernández
Bernie A. Hernández - 2 timer siden
Was trying to use the 'giveluck' code but I guess it's safe to asume it no longer work because you already sold 100+, right? Since I've ran out of space at my place for "toys" (no matter how cool and educational they are!), I prefer to just send away the money on Patreon or such. Keep up your amazing work! (And gratitude).
ALEPH calinagan
ALEPH calinagan - 2 timer siden
🤯 awesome!
B Britt
B Britt - 2 timer siden
@6:30 Kool-Aid man is that you? Oh yeah!!!
You Learn Education
You Learn Education - 2 timer siden
This video helps explain veritasium. noburn.info/id/video/qpimYbV_Zp5rfmU.html
You Learn Education
You Learn Education - 2 timer siden
But veritasium, the standard model of particle physics states that gravity is a fundamental force.
Ramonzeira
Ramonzeira - 2 timer siden
yes
魔王ギイ・クリムゾン
魔王ギイ・クリムゾン - 2 timer siden
Might jump out of a roof to make einstein's imagination real
Hujik senpai
Hujik senpai - 2 timer siden
What a nice thing do know at 2am '-'
Nixus Prime
Nixus Prime - 2 timer siden
thumbs up for those who are working on these types of projects
DeuceGenius
DeuceGenius - 2 timer siden
are you a part of this universe or do you exist in a different universe?
BRUH 4 sub
BRUH 4 sub - 2 timer siden
Why didnt anyone walk on the walls?
Ajay kaja mobile
Ajay kaja mobile - 2 timer siden
Which means our solar system is moving international space station also moving but why they feel zero gravity
LightLock
LightLock - 2 timer siden
another possibility is that there is a you who never got up to check the box. and another where you never started the experiment in the first place. so on and so forth. infinite possibilities. But I simply cannot except that if there is another universe that we can't at least observe. there has got to be a way.
kolaar genius
kolaar genius - 2 timer siden
Drew is a funny guy 😂
Polony Roll
Polony Roll - 2 timer siden
Well there is now
Archit Ashish
Archit Ashish - 3 timer siden
That mean people living hard lives live longer!!
Master Kenobi
Master Kenobi - 3 timer siden
No..to answer ur question, i hate noise and prefer quiet
Bleed Blue
Bleed Blue - 3 timer siden
All I wanted was a yes or no🙃
Private Name
Private Name - 3 timer siden
If lower protein levels made people fat, then why, in the US, where we have the highest protein intakes anywhere, are we also the fattest? You seem to be suspending your logic when it comes to food.
Andre Almeida
Andre Almeida - 3 timer siden
This is amazing! Have you ever thought of teaming up with PBS Space Time for one episode?
Aviv Parekh
Aviv Parekh - 3 timer siden
Lol I don't see a Porsche roaming in India like that dawg wut just happened 🤣
Matthew Wu
Matthew Wu - 3 timer siden
So what your saying is humans are playing with time? This is spooky and intriguing
Private Name
Private Name - 3 timer siden
"We're still getting big plants. And they wouldn't grow that well if they didnt have the nutrients they need". Unless we used growth hormones like miracle grow, or pesticides so the plants could survive with weaker defenses, or if we genetically modified (or selectively bred) the crops to survive off less and less nutrients over the years, or genetically modified them to grow bigger to fight them wanting to grow smaller. And we do all four.
eXCEPTiON
eXCEPTiON - 3 timer siden
Ha! You can't fool us dr.callaghan we know you just came out of prison
tesofe
tesofe - 3 timer siden
Laminar flow most notable use is not really decorative fountains. Not having a personal preference for either, I work with laminar flow on a daily basis because of most of has been said about turbulent. In oil drilling, production and transport laminar is a must because causes less damage to piping, equipment and less deterioration to wellbores - and I expect for these same reasons any industry that depends on fluids transport via pumping will require their flows to be laminar, therefore laminar flow has a huge impact on industry, of which water fountains certainly is a tiny fraction. Laminar flow is also harder to achieve and maintain on larger scales just like you said, and yet it is done in conditions where up to 1200 gallons per minute or more in 17.5" tube sizes or larger are needed - that's why research to learn how to efficiently maintain fluids flowing in laminar regimes is very important. So where not really a big deal, I think it gets despised big time just because is not so visible - and also because it is just prettier.
Kevin
Kevin - 3 timer siden
I expand with every donut
Jet Jaguar
Jet Jaguar - 3 timer siden
Why the hell would you want to go to San Francisco?
Brandon Bates
Brandon Bates - 3 timer siden
Was with you until dark energy......
Ashton Allen
Ashton Allen - 3 timer siden
Me😂
The _ Jking
The _ Jking - 3 timer siden
1:32 who else thought of something else
Paper Clip
Paper Clip - 3 timer siden
Me before watching this vid: hmmm... looks interesting. Me halfway in this vid: TOO MUCH INFORMATION!!!!
Geri Acheson
Geri Acheson - 3 timer siden
Why does the window washer "fall" if there is no gravity?
the infinite
the infinite - 3 timer siden
why things eccelerate towards earth once it enter the atmosphere if there is no gravitational force then things should not gradually get faster from the empty space to the atmosphere to the earth the speed should be the same since earth it self is whats moving
An Alien Life
An Alien Life - 3 timer siden
Future cooking tutorials: So you are going to want to place the pan on the stove and play WAP for about 20 minutes.
Acito Bandz
Acito Bandz - 3 timer siden
So it’s a dime
Prajwal Chavan
Prajwal Chavan - 3 timer siden
I didn't know there are this many dumb people in the world, and we're not even in America yet😂
the infinite
the infinite - 3 timer siden
but then how u explain things been lighter under water
Collin Klebe
Collin Klebe - 3 timer siden
I love watching your vid it is just so interesting and I 13 years old.I would love to grow up to be an assternot it is my drem job. thanks for teching me something new
Jason Gabriel Schulte
Jason Gabriel Schulte - 3 timer siden
I dont think the universe is expanding. I think its contracting. Since its relative to the observer, it appears to be expanding as it does. God is breathing, when he/her exhales it will all turn around and come back to us. Or like, bearthing contractions.
Henry Monroy
Henry Monroy - 3 timer siden
My problem grasping/believing this is that this only SEEMS to work on a flat plane. Earth is a sphere, and cannot accelerate in all directions at once w/o expanding. Please help me understand where my misconception is, if there is one.
Collin Klebe
Collin Klebe - 3 timer siden
Just so you know you owe me a pc you sead it haha
Harry Cowan
Harry Cowan - 3 timer siden
Then why do videos I've already watched keep coming back on the list? I've seen it, don't put it on that precious real estate!
Dirk Bastardrelief
Dirk Bastardrelief - 3 timer siden
Nice push-zoom at 10:45 to accentuate the hubris of the subjects "certainty". Subtle but powerful editing!
Guy Smith
Guy Smith - 3 timer siden
And I love each and every one of you. This was an odd but welcome short!
the infinite
the infinite - 3 timer siden
he has a point..its the same weightlessness u feel when u traveling in a car and it's max out u aint move but u feel like u floating ..that because the car is moving faster than the earth is spinning ..i could be wrong but it makes all scence to me.
An Alien Life
An Alien Life - 4 timer siden
Past: 4g Today: 5G Future: 0G
Ricardo Fernández Serrata
Ricardo Fernández Serrata - 4 timer siden
They said Einstein was wrong... now we know he could've been right all this time.
Morris-Jeremy Wachira Wanjohi
Morris-Jeremy Wachira Wanjohi - 4 timer siden
You used to be a cute kid. What happened?
Fran
Fran - 4 timer siden
I'm so grateful that you talk in metric... 🥰
16 Bit Gaming
16 Bit Gaming - 4 timer siden
this explains why astronaut sees nothing in Space , Photons keep expanding
IWashMyOwnBrain
IWashMyOwnBrain - 4 timer siden
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